The moderate success of the first Spanish World's Fair in Barcelona in 1888 motivated politicians to do better. So it was decided to organise a second World Fair in Barcelona in 1929, to be held at the same time as the Ibero-American Fair in Seville.
Three themes made up the exhibition: industry, sport and art in Spain.
The Montjuick hill was chosen for its dominant position over the city. This 200-hectare park was completely redesigned by Pedro Domenech so that visitors arriving through the main entrance could admire the scenery thanks to its sloping location.
At the bottom of the hill was the "Plaza de Espana", a circular square where the main entrance was located and where all the avenues serving the exhibition converged, as well as the main streets of the city; this square, with its fountains and water fountains, served as a link between the two worlds of the city and the exhibition.
The exhibition was structured in 3 zones:
- at the bottom of the hill were various palaces, including the transport palace
- at the middle level of the hill were the national pavilions, the art palace, the royal pavilion and the national palace
- and at the top of the hill was the big stadium
To transport tourists more easily to the different levels of the hill, 2 funiculars were put into service.
A Spanish village with reproductions of the most beautiful and traditional Spanish buildings was built on an area of 20,000 m2 .
The village was surrounded by a huge wall, which added the spirit of a real medieval village to the place.
To give life to this village many events were organised such as folk dances and other traditional shows.