Universal Exhibition of Agricultural, Industrial and Fine Arts Products - Paris 1855

Agriculture, Industry and Fine Arts

May 15, 1855 - November 15, 1855


Back - List of Pavilions

Austria

manque image

Let us now return to the transept. Entering the first Austrian square through the second door, and turning left, we find in a showcase the brass musical instruments of Mr. Cerveny of Bohemia, one of the most important manufacturers in Austria. Underneath these instruments there are imitations of all kinds of precious stones of great resemblance and beauty: all these imitations are made of Bohemian crystal. Next to them, in several showcases, are Bohemian garnets, another Bohemian specialty, mounted in gold, and forming various pieces of jewellery. A beautiful large geographical map of Europe, which was made at the Imperial Military Institute of Geography, adorns the next panel. MM. Rocofrères, engravers
in Milan, have exhibited below it silver filigrees and small guilloche paintings on gold and silver plates for watches, snuff boxes, etc. The portrait of Napoleon 1, like all the others, is of superior execution. The following showcases show us the ornaments and various items of jewellery mounted in coral. A beautiful necklace and two bracelets priced at 6,500 fr.; other bracelets at 200, 160 fr. etc. are to be seen.

Above and in the middle of the panel we see the portrait of Franz Joseph, the Emperor of Austria, in a very fine gilded and carved wooden frame by Messrs Kolbel and Trom in Vienna.

Below the frame, on the left hand side, there is a beautifully carved ivory pot representing a fight. A small carved wooden jar, which is next to it, will attract attention by the fineness of the execution of the hunting scenes carved in the wood with infinite art and perseverance. Then there is a pretty little model of the famous cathedral of Milan, in gilt silver, and a silver cup decorated with gilding of fine workmanship, by M. Colombe, in Milan.

A beautiful oxidised silver jar completes this small series.

Below, snuffboxes and watch chains from a Viennese factory. Next to this frame, a relief map of the railway on the Sœmmering in Lower Austria will attract attention. The Soemmering is a mountain which separates Lower Austria from Styria, and is 4,000 feet high. The Austrian engineers have pierced this mountain to lead a railway of incredible boldness, which will be convinced by examining this relief, which is due to M. Pauliny, draughtsman of the Geographical Institute of Vienna.

Other reliefs, like that of Tyrol, are arranged next to this one, and on the tables below them is a very interesting exhibition by Messrs. Schlechta and Pachman, owners of a garnet-cutting establishment in Bohemia, here we see all the phases that this stone goes through before it is used to make ornaments, as we see in the showcases next to the fine jewellery of very good taste and very fine workmanship of Messrs. Goldschmidt in Prague, Rosenberg in Vienna, and Schonborn in Dlakowitz in Bohemia. The packfong cutlery, a composition imitating silver, and the music prints that follow, are unremarkable. The next wall panel, again on the right, shows the first samples of the Imperial Printing House in Vienna, one of the most famous establishments of its kind in Europe. This first sample is already worthy of its reputation, for here we see in ten frames produced by electroplating in the Imperial Printing House itself, sheets from a collection of the Black Father, in 81 languages, and naturally, in characters conforming to these languages. Downstairs, in three display cases, we see superb bindings and portfolios of rare taste and perfection. M. Giradet, in Vienna, has exhibited these objects, all the ornaments and accessories of which are also made in Vienna.

After passing through a door, we find exclusively objects from the Imperial Printing Office in Vienna. First, lithographs, including Judith, the Descent from the Cross, the portrait of Rubens, etc.; then samples of galvanography, namely: a Dog's head by Ranftl, printed on a single plate; a six-table panorama by Breyer, printed on two plates; the chapel of St. Stephen's cathedral in Vienna, painted by Lang, printed on three plates, etc.

This is what the process consists of: the artist paints on a silvered copper plate with a colour composed of some oxide, such as iron oxide, burnt sienna, etc.
The artist paints on a silvered copper plate with a colour composed of some oxide, such as iron oxide, burnt earthenware, or lead pencil, and kneaded with linseed oil. Layers of varying thicknesses are applied as required by the "chiaro-obscuro". The board is then immersed in the galvanic apparatus, and a second board is obtained, which reproduces the original drawing with all its roughness. This is the real copper plate, similar to an aquatinta and produced without the cooperation of an engraver.

Below and next to it, there are samples of chromolithography, that is, colour lithography; below it, some stereotype plates of extraordinary size, one of which is made of gutta-percha; next to and below the panorama of Vienna we find other very remarkable samples of chromolilography, as well as the flower paintings with the same oil paintings next to them, so that we can compare.

Amongst the photographs of this establishment, reproductions of drawings and various insects magnified by the microscope are remarkable. In the boxes below we see printed books of all kinds and in all languages, very remarkable copies of antique canes, produced by the galvanic process, and copper plates for hyalography, that is to say etching on glass, and natural printing, which we will talk about shortly.

We can also see the products of the Imperial Printing House in Vienna, views of various places, and a map produced by chemithography, a process for producing a relief plate with the help of an engraving.

After coating the surface of a zinc plate with an impermeable paste, it is engraved with a needle and treated with etching water, after which the paste is carefully removed. For this purpose, the cavities of the engraved plate are washed, first with olive oil, then with water, and wiped clean so that no trace of acid remains. The plate is then heated (with liquefied metal filings on it) over a wine spirit lamp, or in some other way, until the liquefied metal has filled the whole engraving; As soon as the metal has cooled, it is scraped from the surface of the zinc plate, so that only what has penetrated into the cavities of the engraving remains. The zinc plate, with which the liquefied metal had been joined, is then exposed to the influence of a weak solution of muriatic acid, and, since one of these metals is positive and the other negative, it is only the zinc that is affected by the acid, while the liquefied metal, which had penetrated into the cavities of the engraving, remains in relief; from then on, copies of this plate obtained by this process can be printed on a typographic press.

Next to and at the end of this wall panel are the galvano-plastic products, namely: copied fishes, after petrifications; medallions of Messrs. Raduitzky and Würth, animals, and anatomical preparations of the human body to teach natural history to the blind, statuettes, etc. Here is the process by which these objects were obtained. The stone containing the fish, etc., is gradually coated with molten gutta-percha, and in this way a form is produced, which, when later exposed to the action of a galvanic battery, is covered in a short time with a layer of copper forming a plate, on which appear in relief all the distinctive characters of the fish: this plate, printed with a chalcographic press, delivers on paper a result which equals in all respects the original object.

A large topographical map of Vienna and its surroundings, made in the Vienna Military Geographical Institute, covers the panel between the two doors leading into the transept.

Underneath this map are some samples of hyalography (see above) and the products of a very remarkable process, called natural printing, invented by Mr. Worring, protector at this printing house.

This process consists of the following: A plant, flower, insect or any other object is placed between a steel plate and a lead plate and strongly pressed between two cylinders by means of a small press. The image of the object is printed by this pressure down to the smallest detail in the lead plate. Once this plate has been obtained, it is reproduced in relief using the ordinary electroplating process. The resulting plate is used to print the objects, which are remarkably accurate, as can be seen from the samples in front of the visitor, including plants, flowers, insects, lace, etc. The inventor, Mr. Worring, who is present, shows his ingenious process with great thoughtfulness. The small press used for natural printing is in front and to the side.

The trophy in the middle consists of musical instruments, including a piano, flutes, music boxes, etc. Let us enter behind the Imperial Printing House, between columns 20 and 25, where we find Mr. Werlheim's wallpapers and fine collection of tools, and, next to them, the safes of Messrs. Werlheim and Wise; beds and bedlinen, very fine photographs of Venice, and a small showcase full of Mr. Klein's sheet holders, necessaries, etc.; in the middle, bookbindings, engravings, canes, etc.

Let us enter the next square, where we find the products of very skilful turners from Austria, as well as buttons of all kinds, canes, and in the middle, a very large collection of meerschaum pipes, which are distinguished by good workmanship and cheapness. The woollen fabric factory of Mr. Liébig, in Reichenberg in Bohemia, exhibited very beautiful products of its manufacture such as shawls, merino fabrics, etc. At the end of the middle stage, there are wooden boxes with applied carvings, incredibly cheap; there are some very nice ones at 5, 6 and 10 francs a dozen.

Let us look again at the parasols, umbrellas, and umbrellas from Vienna and Venice, and let us go out by the door, between columns 21 and 22, to enter the second Austrian square, the perimeter of which is occupied by a few samples of unbleached and printed cotton fabrics from Bohemia, woollen and hemp fabrics from Moravia, woollen yarns of all kinds from various Austrian provinces, and a small collection of beautiful ponceau coloured yarns, as a sample from the dyeing factories in Illyria, Moravia, Carinthia and Tyrol, including those of the Rikli brothers in Seebach, Carinthia, and those of Messrs. Ganahl et Cie in Feldkirch (Tyrol), the most remarkable.

The middle section is filled with the usual porcelain articles and Bohemian glassware, where the light and pure glass apparatus for chemistry will attract attention. On the side facing the transept are some sad remains of the once famous glassware of Venice; below, large pieces of aventurine (glass mixed with a golden powder), and some sad-looking glasses and bottles with aventurine designs. On the opposite side of the room, and on the side that backs on to column 22, we see another Venetian industry that has better sustained its old reputation; these are the famous Venetian glass beads. Below these beads, very fine imitations of fine stones, and on the left hand, coins and medals reproduced in glass by a new process in Hungary, and towards the doors, very remarkable objects of spun glass. Let's go out through door 21-22; let's cross the big square at the back where we see, in the middle, the sheets of Brünn in Moravia and Reichenberg in Bohemia. On the right, as we go up, we see very nice wallpapers and Venetian terazzi, i.e. imitations of marble in terra cotta from Venice. The opposite side has very pretty travel goods, chests, trunks, overnight bags, travel beds, etc.; {furniture, among which chairs, armchairs, and sofas of wood sawn lengthwise and then bent at will, which gives the furniture great elasticity. A chair like this thrown on the floor bounces and stays upright. Finally, at the end of the Austrian exhibition, next to the small Austrian desk, we see a small toilet and laundry baskets, etc., made of wickerwork, bought by Princess Mathilde.

©Promenades dans l'exposition de 1855