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Sweden and Norway - Expo Paris 1878

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The Swedish and Norwegian art exhibition does not occupy a considerable amount of space, but its various paintings have an undeniable stamp of originality that impresses and charms the visitor.

Let us start with the Swedish part.
Baron G. O. Cederstrom exhibits a historical painting, the body of Charles XII carried by his officers across the Norwegian border. This subject is treated extensively; the pale face of the dead king is full of expression; the physiognomies of the soldiers are both painful and energetic. In front of the procession, an eagle hunter is respectfully uncovered; this hunter, with his old soldier's head, his white hair, his contrite air, his rifle slung over his shoulder, and carrying the eagle he has just shot, stands out magnificently in grisaille against the background of the snow-covered landscape.

Behind the king's stretcher, a soldier carries the national banner; it shades the dead man's forehead; it looks like the country crying for its father.

The paintings of Mr. Wahberg are much looked at; original, exact and careful brushwork; good, solid and well-drawn painting; such are the qualities that meet in the highest degree with this artist.

His summer night in Sweden, his marine, borrowed from a site in the Bay of Biscay, are striking paintings.
Baroness Amélie Von Schwerin has a good landscape; the evening effect is rendered with great cachet.

M. Nordenberg shows a moving rustic scene; a young peasant is brought in dead from the hunt on a stretcher of foliage. In the background, some men bring back the remains of a colossal bear; it is the one that, in the struggle, tore the hunter's chest with a terrible claw.

The truth of the scene, its dramatic layout, produces a very great effect.

A painting of a different kind attracts visitors; it is Mrs. Nils Forsberg's "Les Saltimbanques avant la loi Talon".

The poor little pale and etic being dislocating himself in front of a fairground circus director who coldly discusses with his manager the qualities or the defects of the subject, is of a distressing effect. One sees the muscles stretch and hears the joints crack.

Alongside this painfully realistic but superbly treated subject is a charming genre painting by Mr Zetterstrom. The scene takes place in the countryside; a young man and a young girl are talking quietly. The young man is pressing, the girl is blushing.

Below the painting, the artist has written these lines:
Yes, we will live in my little cottage,
Where we shall live together in peace and content;
And we will raise our dear little children
In the love of the Lord and the King. I hope
That it will be kind. An! think, my dear.

This idyll is positively delightful.

Let us look for a moment at the Flower Market, by Count G. von Rosen, and stop before a delightful painting by Mrs. E. Sparre. A young girl, delightful in her bridal costume, is leaning against a window; she is looking anxiously towards the door; her left hand holds a mass book... she is waiting.

In the room, travel bags; a bouquet on a pedestal table.

The shimmer of the white silk dress is rendered in the happiest way, and the light has been very well found and followed by the artist; the carpet is perfect; its matt tone in opposition to the brightness of the silk produces a great effect. Let us add that the figure of the young woman is of a beautiful ideal.

We were about to forget a beautiful painting by Mr. Nils Forsberg, and this painting, by its French sympathy, touches us particularly; it is the Grandfather and the Bad News. Here is the subject:
An old soldier has his granddaughter read the Petit Journal; it is 1870; alas! the news was bad... who does not remember?

The expression of the old soldier's face, the expression of the child's face are impossible to describe. The grandfather suffers from what he hears, the child has a serious sadness which proves that, young as she is, she suffers from what she is forced to read.

This remarkable painting is not in the official catalogue, why?

Let us move on to Norway. Its exhibition has the defect that we would willingly reproach to that of Sweden; it is not abundantly supplied and one is too quick to visit it; its artists are not those of whom one gets tired and, however long one remains looking at their paintings, one would like to see more; one would like them to have given more.

We first notice the Sun Effect, by M. Baade, and then the painting by M. Heyerdahl: Adam and Eve driven out of paradise.

The two guilty parties, frightened, descend together into the darkness, and in the left-hand corner of the painting, at the very top, a vague glow is disappearing... it is the light of the lost paradise that is going to fade away forever.

The idea is right, but the colour is perhaps a little forced and the light perhaps badly calculated; perhaps, since the painter represented the earth as being so black, he should have made the last glow of the earthly paradise more colourful by way of a logical contrast; obviously, this last glow was to continue to illuminate the guilty parties like a remorse until they had reached the place of suffering.

We ask the reader's permission to submit to him here an observation which we believe he will share with us, namely that Swedish and Norwegian artists attain an undeniable superiority when they have to paint the day or night effects of their climate.

Anyone who has visited and compared the various exhibitions of foreign fine art will agree with us. The artist, whatever he does, always has the light of his native country in his eye; if an English painter paints a Venice in full sunlight, you will recognise the nationality of the author either in greyness, in a sort of mist, or on the contrary in a profusion of colour; therefore, from the point of view of the tone of colour, the artist is only true when he paints his native sky: one paints one's own country, one imitates the others.

Thus, what could be truer, as a sky, as a well understood colour, than the striking and fantastic painting of Mr. Arbo: the Asgaardreid!

It is a legend, an old legend of the past, to which his brush has given life.

Mr. E. Beauvois, in his Histoire légendaire des Francs et des Burgondes, says:
"It is still told to this day, in the countryside of Norway, that the Asgaardreid (that is, the troop of horsemen who go to the abode of the Aesir, at Valhalle) consists of the dead who have not done enough good to deserve heaven, nor enough evil to go to hell. Their punishment is to gallop through the air until the end of the world... These horsemen, mounted on coal-black steeds and whose eyes sparkle in the dark, keep quiet where there is order; but you can hear their laughter and the clanking of their weapons when battles break out... It is an ominous band, but it reminds us of the Valkyries who would preside over the battles. In the Middle Ages, this reminiscence of paganism was represented as a band of witches who went to the Sabbath.

Such a subject, under Mr. Arbo's brush, should have been treated with a masterly hand, and it was.

The troop of fantastic horsemen passes like a whirlwind; it hurries on, for twilight is approaching; on the way it picks up a dead man who comes to join it, a recruit...

And the troop, prey to the infernal race imposed upon it, flees, flees, disturbing the air, stirring the elements...

And below, on the surface of the earth, silent, still asleep, we see the trees bending as if a storm were passing over them.

It is greatly rendered. It is magnificent.

We will ask Mr. Wergeland's permission to point out that, if Dyveke's Death is not without merit, he has perhaps drawn too much inspiration from the well-known painting: Benvenuto Cellini expiring in the arms of Francis I.

The Scottish Landscape, by M. Gode, attracts much attention; the Funeral Convoy, by M. Peters, is moving; the coffin in a boat, the snow around it, the well-rendered physiognomies, make it a truly deserving painting.

Mr. Dahl's Too Late is a very pleasant peasantry, perhaps a little colourful, but charming at last: two young men, probably newlyweds, push their boat loaded with hay into the open water, while a fat boy who had hoped to go on board with them, and who is carrying a huge load of hay, stands sheepishly three metres from the shore on a large stone. The young boatmen leave laughing, and the face of the boy who arrived "too late" is so funny that no one can pass by this picture without laughing.

Let us note again, before closing this account, two very amusing canvases conscientiously and meticulously painted by Mr. Lerche: the Refectory and the Scandalous Chronicle. They are perfectly successful studies of monastic heads; but how well Mr. Lerche's monks eat!


The Swedish and Norwegian countries are not very well known; we think, therefore, that we shall interest the reader by giving him some details of their present situation.

The population of Sweden is 4,168,325, comprising only 573 Roman Catholics and about 2,000 Jews; that of Norway is 1,664,000.

The Swedish army consists of 147,000 men and 234 cannons; the Norwegian army of 12,000 men.

The Swedish fleet consists of 137 ships, with 380 guns and 40,000 sailors; the Norwegian fleet, 33 steamers, 93 sailing ships, with 157 guns and 3,500 sailors.

The last budget of Sweden was 120,525,000 francs, balanced expenditure and revenue. Norway's was 41,843,000 francs.

We do not wish to push this statistic too far; if the whole is interesting, the detail would perhaps be tiresome for the reader; we must however give a figure which is at least of interest, because it concerns a small and very curious population; it concerns the Lapps. The Lapps number 26,711 individuals, who possess the enormous quantity of 360,000 reindeer.

Norway harvests 95,000 hectolitres of wheat, 1,588,400 hectolitres of barley, 323,000 hectolitres of rye, 625,400 hectolitres of mixed grain, 3,246,300 hectolitres of oats, and 7,946,500 hectolitres of potatoes; The other cereals are not sufficient for the indigenous consumption and must be imported in considerable quantities, that is, to give an idea, reducing the whole to the value of barley, 1,845 hectolitres per 1,000 inhabitants; the annual consumption per 1,000 inhabitants of this same value being 4,687 hectolitres.

Agriculture is, however, flourishing and progressing, but wheat is no longer cultivable beyond the 64th degree of north latitude.
The usual food is bread, made from fermented dough, mainly of rye flour, and baked; or in a very local way from unfermented dough of barley and oat flour, often mixed with pea flour. There are two forms: fladbrod (flat bread) and lefse (a kind of cake). The fladbrod is very common in the countryside, very nourishing and very tasty. Being very thin, it is eaten by covering it with a thick layer of butter or fat; but the gruel is the favourite food of the people: it is eaten with skimmed or sour milk. Next comes the potato, its usual accompaniment, seasoned with salted herring. Meat is eaten as salt in the mountains, fresh in the towns and in places easily connected with them.

The livestock is very considerable: 151,905 horses, 1,016,595 horned animals, 1,686,806 sheep, 323,364 goats, 101,351 pigs and 131,274 reindeer; nevertheless, about 3 million kilograms of butter and 4 million kilograms of meat and salted lard are imported.

As for the fisheries, which we shall return to at length, they are the great industry of the country; they occupy
They occupy at least 78,700 inhabitants and represent an annual market value of nearly ninety million.

The fish found in these parts are: cod, lobster, herring, mackerel, seal, etc., etc.


The Swedish exhibition is of the greatest educational interest.

In few countries are the authorities and individuals so deeply concerned with the need to spread education everywhere.

In Sweden, as in Norway, primary education is free and compulsory.

What is noteworthy, and what makes the character of these two countries esteemed, is the sustained and devoted care with which everyone is interested in education and in furthering it.

Schools abound, and all of them have made a point of being represented at the Champ de Mars Palace.

We shall mention the primary and vocational school of Tyskbo-Horndal, the higher primary school of the province of Vermland, the industrial school of Nââs-Floda, the primary schools of Wenersborg, the vocational school of Lagmansered, the vocational school of the province of Westerbotten, the school of-Nâs for girls, another vocational school at the same place for young boys.

All of these schools exhibit work by pupils of both sexes, which is interesting to examine.

It should be noted that, contrary to what happens in many countries, instruction and vocational training are not limited to boys alone; thanks to the vocational school, girls acquire the means to lead their lives honourably, since they leave school only with knowledge of a trade.

Prince Charles' school for the education of poor children receives children of both sexes from the age of eight to fifteen.
There are also several agricultural schools and a seminary designed to train a pool of teachers for vocational education.

Special mention must be made of Mr. Borg, the director of the Stockholm asylum. Mr. Borg, who is concerned to soften for the blind and deaf-mute the cruel hardships to which their infirmity condemns them, exhibits teaching equipment as curious as it is interesting.

Here is first a combined speaking and hearing apparatus for deaf-mutes, then another intended to put a blind deaf-mute and a person with normal senses in communication, etc., etc. - Next to it is another apparatus, with the same purpose, for the blind, by Mr. Schentz, an engineer in Stockholm.

It should be added that Mr. Borg, not content with instructing these poor people, endeavours above all to put them in a position to earn their living; and he succeeds in this to a satisfactory degree, judging by the basketry, clerestory, and wickerwork exhibited by these blind people.


Among the works exhibited, there is one which struck us particularly, it is the book of Colonel Staaf, Swedish military attaché in Paris: French Literature from the formation of the language to the present day. As soon as it appeared, this book was accepted as an offline textbook in Sweden, Russia, Belgium and France.

The geological map of Sweden, with the collections of specimens assembled by Mr. Torell, is a real gem from the geographical point of view.

The Central Printing House in Stockholm exhibits specimens of typography, lithography and engraving.

The Gernandt Printing House has sent a remarkable copy of the Divine Comedy, and the bookshop of the Institution for the Propagation of the Gospel has sent specimens of its publications.

Here are copies of Swedish newspapers: the Ny Illustred Sidning and the Gazette du Commerce, from Gothenburg.

Let us now stop at Professor Nordenskiold's natural history collection.

All these objects were collected during the 1875 and 1876 expeditions to the Kara Sea and the Jenisséj.

The purpose of these two expeditions was to continue the research carried out earlier (the first one took place in 1553) to discover a north-eastern passage, i.e. a maritime route from the Atlantic to China along the northern coast of Siberia.

Both expeditions of the learned professor were successful, and here is how he specified the results in his report:
"It results from the collections made by the Swedish expeditions, that the Kara Sea, far from being as poor as had been represented, is distinguished on the contrary by a kindly life, very rich in individuals as well as in forms. It can be compared to that of Spitzbergen, Greenland, Iceland and the Arctic regions of North America. It seems that an almost uniform marine fauna extends around the boreal pole from the northern coasts of Siberia to the polar archipelago of North America. The great masses of fresh water that the gigantic Siberian rivers pour into the Ice Sea do not influence the composition of the animal life on the bottom of this sea.

"Before the various groups have been submitted to the examination of specialists, it is difficult to determine exactly how many lower animal forms are to be found in the Kara Sea. It can, however, be estimated at approximately five hundred species,
This is in fact a very considerable number for a sea which has been considered to be as poor in species as the Baltic. Such are, if we add the collection of a hundred species of insects from New Zealand (from which Ton previously knew only seven), and a greater knowledge of the vertebrates of the same country, the principal zoological results of the research undertaken in these regions by the two Swedish expeditions.

In the field of photography, a new method should be mentioned, which Mr. Petersens reports in these terms in the catalogue:
"Mr. Carleman's discovery in heliography consists in the division, by means of a homogeneous system of lines or points, of the continuous tints of a photographic image from nature. The distribution of light and shade, represented in the copy by dots or lines more or less fine or coarse, more or less close or more or less distant from each other, becomes, thanks to this process, perfectly analogous to the chiaroscuro of the original. Transported on a stone or metal plate, the image produced can be printed on the lithographic or typographic press, and it possesses the advantages resulting from the correct reproduction from nature, combined with the modicum of price and the rapidity of execution."

One of the most successful modern scientific devices is the late Theorell's Meteorograph Printer, built by Mr. Sorensen, of Stockholm. It works at the Special Observatory in Upsal, and also at the one in Vienna. It records every quarter of an hour all the usual observations, and, moreover, prints them itself simultaneously.


There is little furniture on display, although Sweden produces a great deal of it. Walnut and oak are the favourite woods used. We have only to mention a very original dining-room, by Mr. Eliason (Stockholm), and a very pretty bookcase in carved oak, by Messrs. Sternberg and Berntsen (Gothenburg), in the Louis XVI style; then tables in polished marble, exhibited by Mr. Klintberg, at Wisby.

As decorative articles for furniture, there is hardly anything to be mentioned but wood paste, shaped and moulded like plaster; moreover, the ornaments on the national façade are made of this material and applied to the wood of the building.

The ceramics are very bright, very original, very artistic, especially in the objects that reproduce the indigenous types.
The exhibition is the result of the collaboration of three factories, Gustafsberg, Hoganaes and Boerstrand, from Stockholm. Almost every genre is represented by valuable imitations. We shall particularly mention a monumental mantelpiece in green majolica, flanked by two proportioned candelabras of remarkable beauty; then a second mantelpiece in grey-slate earthenware.

These fireplaces are, we cannot say enough, true masterpieces.

Let us mention a very beautiful pedestal table cloth: it is black and has a huge garland of silk-embroidered flowers as its only ornament. The bright colours of the flowers stand out marvellously against the dark background of the fabric; the effect is very beautiful and above all of perfect taste.

Painted paper, cutlery, cast iron and clocks have only one or two representatives; however, the specimens brought in are worth examining; they stand comparison with other countries.

The goldsmith's trade is very rich, and above all of original workmanship as well as meticulousness. Swedish stoves are famous; those we see are worthy of this reputation by their external brilliance, their large dimensions, their solidity of construction, and the ingenuity of the interior layout. Let us quote in particular those of Mr. Bolinder, of Stockholm, as well as his kitchen stoves and his stoves for irons; then the superb earthenware stoves, of Mr. Eckman, of Stockholm.

We should also mention the Swedish firelighters from Œstland, which we will find in the same class in France.

Perfumery is mainly an imported article in Sweden; however, it is produced in chemical factories and soap factories: such as the soaps and eaux de senteur exhibited by the technical factory of Barnaengen, and the amykose for toiletries of the Upsal Company, the only exhibitors in this class.

We have now arrived at matches: we know that they constitute a very important branch of industry for Sweden; they are the so-called safety matches, which only ignite if rubbed on a special paper.


It was not until 1815 that cotton spinning was introduced in Sweden, and it became mechanical around 1820. At present there are 24 spinning mills with 244,647 spindles, employing 5,269 workers. Next to them, there are 26 cotton cloth factories in operation, employing 2,846 workers, which produce calico, madapolam, moleskin, schirting, etc. It is estimated that 30 million metres of this type of fabric are manufactured annually. Some very large factories are admirably equipped, such as the one at Nœrrkœping, but a good part of this cloth is woven at home by the peasants, especially in regions not very favoured by their soil, and thus becomes a domestic industry, which provides work and a livelihood for thousands of women and young girls. They used the Jacquard loom and even practised artistic weaving with success: their production in 1876 reached 11 million metres.

There is only one mechanical flax spinning mill in Almedahl, near Gothenburg, which produces about 700,000 pounds of yarn. It is at the same time almost the only large linen factory, delivering 300,000 yards of linen annually, in the form of ordinary cloth, twill, damask, coutil, etc.

The main factory for heavy canvas, tent or sailcloth, is the Onsered factory, in the same region; it produces a million metres; the other part of the production is made by the domestic industry as for cotton canvas. And this is a considerable source of work and well-being for the rural population. A curious proof of the perfection of spinning is that as early as 1758, a skein of yarn weighing 13,300 grams was spun in Naetra. In this respect, consumption also far exceeds production, and about 550,000 pounds of linen and jute yarn are imported, as well as cloth, damask, and other linen, hemp and jute fabrics to the value of 4,170,000-f.

We especially recommend for the consideration of visitors the collection of specimens exhibited by the Royal Agricultural Society of Vester-Nœrrland, all of which are products of the domestic industry of that county.

Worsted wool yarn is not manufactured in Sweden. Carded wool is spun in woollen cloth factories; but the yarn used in the country is prepared in quite a number of small mechanical woolen mills, and is used for weaving taffeta for men's clothing or for knitting stockings.

Nœrrkœping is the main seat of cloth manufacture, which has been established here for more than two centuries. 47 factories exist today, producing cloth of various qualities to the value of 17,098,000 francs. They import from the great transatlantic markets about 5,000,000 pounds of wool a year for their own manufacture; Sweden, however, still buys 4,119,000 pounds of woollen cloth and, in addition, 4,000,000 and more pounds of coloured unbleached yarn, wool and camel hair.

The production of silk hardly yields more than 1,390,000 francs: imports amount to about 5 million francs.

On the subject of lace and fabrics, let us pay tribute to the feeling of patriotism, philanthropy and love of art which inspired the foundation of the Société des amies des ouvrages à la main (Society of Friends of Handicraft); this society endeavours to bring back into vogue the old models and processes, whose artistic value is recognised, and which have above all a Scandinavian character. It employs a large number of workers, and receives orders even from abroad. The specimens of woollen cloth and lace which she has sent to the Champ de Mars are most graceful.


Another valuable industry for Swedish families. We have little to say of it, except that simplicity is beginning to disappear, even among the agricultural classes. The love of luxury and glamour is invading the people; the increasing abandonment of the national costume is to be regretted from the point of view of picturesqueness.

As regards clothing, we must mention with admiration the splendid coats, pelisses, houppelandes, blankets, etc., made of furs of all kinds, with which the Swedish section and its Norwegian neighbour are abundantly provided. In particular, let us mention the delicious ei-der down blankets of Mr. Bergstroem, of Stockholm, which are delightfully soft, and fox, bear and small grey skins, which are as supple, as beautiful as they are cheap, a quality to be remembered.

Let us also mention ingenious shirt fronts, without buttonholes, brought by Messrs. Lundgrenfrères, of Helsingberg, which would be greatly appreciated by housewives who are constantly obliged to repair these details of their husbands' costume.

There is nothing left to mention in group IV, except some very original jewellery, among others those of Mrs. Emeline Holst, of Ralanda, Orust, mounted in fish scale.


The mechanical gymnastic apparatus of Dr. Zander, director of the Mechano-Therapeutic Institution in Stockholm, is certainly one of the curiosities of the machine gallery.

The result of these machines is that the benefits of gymnastic exercises are produced without the patient having to do them.

There are various forms of apparatus, according to the nature of the medication to be exercised; sometimes they are small wooden blades which beat a load rushed on the back; sometimes it is a sort of horizontal rod which is grasped with both hands and which shakes you in the right way, etc., etc.

The necessary exercise for the muscles is provided without the patient having to play an active role.

Dr. Zander has obtained numerous cures which do credit to his invention.

Very fine specimens of machines, if they are not numerous, prove that mechanical construction has also reached a high degree of perfection in Sweden. Let us mention the great establishment of Motala, the first in that country, then Y Al las, of Stockholm, the Kockum workshop at Molmoe, that of Bolinder, already mentioned in connection with furnaces, etc. Whatever the purpose of these machines, one can always be sure to find in them the outstanding qualities of iron and steel from the Swedish metallurgical works, i.e. out of league products.

This part of the Swedish exhibition is of great interest, in that it gives the visitor an exact and complete measure of the wealth of the soil of this country. All the great companies have made a point of sending us their products, whose long-standing reputation is once more confirmed. Ores of all kinds, anthracite, coal, iron (magretite and oligiste, pyrites), copper, lead, nickel, cobalt, zinc blende, manganese, graphite, are represented by raw or worked samples, which are all of exceptional quality.

Next come grey and pink granites, marbles, porphyries, limestones, sandstones, shales and tectile slates, clays and feldspars, etc., etc.

The samples of metals are almost all arranged in groups along the large transverse aisle; the tradesmen will find there a most complete collection, comprising consignments from forty-eight houses, among which the Comptoir des forges alone represents twenty-two on their behalf; He has brought together plates, exhibited as specimens of a series of tests carried out with the aim of bringing out the qualities of Swedish materials for the manufacture of plates; then a whole collection of the products of the exploitation of mines and ironworks, the simplest nomenclature of which would be too voluminous for the framework of this work. Suffice it to say that many of the cast irons and steels we see here have been subjected for ten years and more to the strain of tram traction on the Swedish State Railways.

The paper mill shows us a wonderful production of wood pulp, as a substitute for rag. The mechanical process of Voelter is applied here with the chemical process for defibrating and extracting the cellulose from the woody tissue. 23 factories are engaged in this work, and can produce 45,000,000 pounds of this raw material. The specimens exhibited are very beautiful, at least as far as can be judged in the dry state, because for industrial consumption, the pulp is always delivered containing 50 to 60% water; the fibres are fine and above all very long, which is a real feat. Many of our newsprint papers, for example, would benefit greatly if they were made only with this quality of pulp.

In the railway equipment, we should mention the locomotive and the comfortable wagons of the Atlas Company, the bed carriage of the Kvekum Company, and the narrow-gauge locomotive of Messrs. Nydgwist and Holm, of Trollhätan. In passing, let us note a shell-melted railway crossing from the house of Maré; it is a block of exceptional quality.

After iron and metals, there is wood, of which Sweden is prodigiously gifted, and which she exports in large quantities - 145 million of unworked wood and about 16 million of worked wood. Pine and fir in the first place, birch, alder and aspen, and to a lesser extent oak and beech, make up the components of this forestry wealth. They come to us in the form of planks and boards for carpentry, and beams and girders for the construction of ships and houses. So far, the export of wood processed into parquet flooring has been modest compared to that of rough lumber.


The pelts, which represent the class of products of hunting, are admirable and of great variety: lynx, ermine, otter, wolf, grey, red, white, blue fox, black and white bear, seal, etc., and then the remains of birds, such as the eider, which provides the true quilt, so highly valued and so expensive. We have already mentioned that this down is used to make blankets that are light, soft and warm. They are trimmed with the bird's neck feathers, coloured with a soft, ideal pastel shade. The male's feathers are a soft sky blue; the female's are brown. The price of these lovely blankets is not as high as one might think; they cost only 300 francs.

Among the chemicals we see especially fish glues, aseptines for the preservation of organic bodies, stearines and candles, polishes and inks, and finally sebastine, an explosive material, based on nitroglycerine and charcoal; thanks to this last element, the explosive oil is absorbed; no accident, it seems, has occurred in the use of this substance, which has been applied in Sweden on a large scale, - 70,000 kilogr. a year, for the last five years.

The food class is very rich in cereals of all kinds; anchovies, smoked and pickled mackerel, herrings, salmon, caviar, and other preserved fish, nothing is lacking.

This preparation is done in the country on the largest scale.

We also find some samples of preserved vegetables, then sweets and candies of very appetizing appearance, refined and raw sugars of a very great delicacy, chicories, vinegars; finally, in the class of beverages, an immense assortment of punch, generally made with super-fine arack, beers, porter and others, then a "singular" liqueur: the spirit of refined and unrefined reindeer lichen, exhibited by Mr. Hagendahl, of Orebro. Hagendahl, from Orebro.

The alcohol and brandy produced in Sweden is mainly derived from cereals and potatoes, and to a lesser extent from beetroot and reindeer moss. Although the domestic production is very considerable - about 39 million litres - Sweden still imports at least 3.5 million litres every year.


There are only four exhibitors here, but quality is more important than quantity.

Here are enormous projectiles, massive and hollow, whole and split to show the breaks, exhibited by Messrs. Ekman and de Maré, then the formidable torpedoes of the Gundberg factory, made of Bessemer steel plate; the models of war bridge equipment of Mr. Captain of Engineers Norrman, the machine guns for the year and the navy, by Mr. Palmerantz.

Finally, we shall make special mention of a very useful invention by Mr. Unge, a lieutenant on the Swedish general staff.

It is the remote watch.

"The remote watch is composed of a mechanism that turns a hand on a dial at a constant speed. On the left, at the outer edge of the watch, is a small button which sets the hand in motion when pressed, and stops it when the pressure is removed. On the right is another button by means of which the hand can be moved from any position on the dial to the zero point at any time.

"The dial has three special concentric peripheries, each divided according to the seasons, namely :
summer (+ 20°),
spring or autumn (+ 5°),
winter (- 10°),
and the last of which is in turn divided into five parts, each denoting "a thousand metres. A full turn of the dial in winter therefore means a distance of 5,000 metres.

"On the sea, if one wishes to measure even longer distances, one must add, during the other seasons, to the observed distances the numbers of metres (130 or 280) indicated on the corresponding peripheries.

"When the watch is adjusted, the hand makes 3 turns in 46 seconds. It is set by a special internal mechanism using a hand.

The editor of the Swedish General Catalogue, from whom we borrow these details, adds:
"In Sweden, this instrument has received a very special and remarkable use for the exercise of the infantry in the appreciation of the distance everywhere where the ordinary procedures of mensuration would be too difficult, or would require too much time, like on cut, wooded, marshy grounds etc., and across water courses.

"Some men, provided with powder cartridges, are sent to various positions which are supposed to be occupied by the enemy.

"As soon as the troop has judged the distance which separates it from that position, the man fires, at a sign from the officer, one or two shots, by means of which the true distance is given by the instrument.

"It has been proposed that all infantry regiments in Sweden should be equipped with the remote watch.

"In time of war, the instrument is essentially intended for use when opening fire against the enemy's artillery, either with firearms or with rifles or carbines.

"For the infantry, whose current tactics sometimes require massed fire at great distances, especially against enemy artillery, this instrument must be of special use. It is the same on board warships and in coastal batteries, either for reconnaissance or to find the distance between the

The same is true on board warships and in coastal batteries, either for reconnaissance, or for finding the distance of explosive mines, etc.".


The Norwegian exhibition has such similarities with the Swedish exhibition that we thought for a moment of grouping them together; we decided, however, to divide them in our account as they are in the Champ de Mars Palace, and this as much in the interest of truth as for the convenience of the reader.

The appearance of the Norwegian exhibition differs greatly from that of its neighbour; all the Swedish windows, which are a little dark in colour, are surmounted by small blue banners with a gold cross; on the Norwegian side, there is a great deal of brightness; everything is made of that light and shiny wood which is so much admired at the entrance to the Rue des Nations.

Education in Norway, as in Sweden, is free and compulsory; gymnastics and military exercises are part of the primary education.

We have little to report; the Ministry of Education has presented the part that falls within its department.
Professor Schübeler presented an excellent botanical map which gives an immediate idea of the importance of Norwegian flora.

The Union of Booksellers, Christiania, has a fine collection of works printed during the last ten years; these works are very nicely printed. We should also mention the beautiful woodcut proofs of Mr. Holter, in Christiania, and the New Illustrated Journal, published in the same city by Mr. Jensen.

From the scientific point of view, we recommend to the visitor the maps of the Geological Survey and the Royal Topographical Survey, and the very fine collection of geological samples of the rocks of Norway.


In Norway, the manufacture of cheap furniture is active; it has seven hundred workshops, and in 1876 employed three thousand workers. The Industrial Workers' Society of Christiania has exhibited furniture which deserves attention. We shall mention, among others, the salon of Mr. Meyer.

In the furniture class we find the refrigerator cabinets for dining rooms, exhibited by Mr. E. Nord, builder in Christiania. These boxes or cabinets would be much more valuable in climates like France, Italy, Spain and Austria during the summer heat. They seem to be already appreciated there, moreover; for the factory has sent a good number of them to these countries.

The fact remains that this piece of furniture is of the most ingenious construction and layout; now that the use of ice is becoming more widespread, it seems that it has its place in all households, even the most modest. It lends itself to all forms: cupboard, bench, box, etc., and is in no way cumbersome.

Its practical utility is, for an expense of no more than four pennies of ice per day, to keep food intact, fresh, in good condition, and consequently to allow the preparation of a large quantity of food, without worrying about the temperature, thus making a real saving on repeated preparation and overly detailed purchases.

In the following classes we shall mention a very strong batch of remarkably black glass bottles and balls, from the glassworks of Bergen and Valla. They must preserve the wine and beer from the influences of light.

Ceramics are represented by vases, bowls, medallions, from the Johnson factory, Christiania, and by Mr. Pedersen's flower-pots, intended to be given away as lottery-objects by the Industrial Workers' Society of Christiania; it is this society again which shows us some specimens of goldsmith's work, candelabra with branches of gilt English metal, having the same purpose, and then fire-guards and a fireplace set, made by Mr. Larsen.

Before leaving the furniture, let us note the very fine samples of woodcarving exhibited by the Museum of Industrial Arts in Christiania, absolutely remarkable specimens of national folk art. They are all the work of a farmer from Opdal (Northern Norway), Ole Olseva Moene. In these drawings, worked with finesse and safety, where he followed no other rule than his imagination, are reproduced the traditional Renaissance motifs in the country.

Here again we find matches of all kinds, absolutely similar to those of Sweden, except for a few tiny nuances of manufacture.


The cotton cloth industry is represented by three exhibitors: Jebsen of Bergen, Compagnie de Nydalen, of Christiania, and Petersen of the same city. All types of this fabric were represented.

Sailcloth and fishing nets could not fail to be widely represented in a country like Norway; the Christiania cloth factory exhibits cloth and nets of remarkable strength.

The woollen fabrics are not unlike those we have seen in Sweden.

A very curious part of the Norwegian exhibition is the lace and embroidery section. There are some delightful works by women, among them the flowers of Miss Helene-Christine Holst.

These flowers are mounted with fish scales, cut out by hand; it is admirable in its delicacy, perfectly rendered and of very nice effect. It looks like mother-of-pearl, but what a work of patience!

Among the knitwear, there are strong knitted fabrics from the house of Ramm and Clausen; they are reminiscent of those vigorous English fabrics that are so warm and strong.

The jewellery section has many ornaments in silver filigree, in a completely original Norwegian style; among others, the very graceful objects of all shapes by Mr. Theodor Olsen, of Bergen, as well as his silver works, both antique and modern, of a finish that has nothing to envy to the most beautiful productions of our renowned manufacturers. Particularly noteworthy are the Norwegian peasant silver jewels exhibited by the Museum of Industrial Arts, made by the peasants themselves for their own use, according to the traditional style of this kind, both in form and ornament.

The exhibition of ores is similar to that of Sweden, with a few exceptions; for we also find lime phosphate, granite, quartz, slate, and silver veins, native and sulphurous silver.

The forest products show the Norwegian skill in handling wood.

The fishing apparatus and implements are not the least curious part of the place where we are; lines, hooks for all kinds of fish, appear there in great completeness.

Cod liver oil is the most important part of the pharmaceutical products.

Norwegian leathers, so justly renowned, form an interesting collection; it is, as we know, an industry of the country which represents a significant turnover, nearly 5 million francs.

Fish guanos, ropes, and wood pulp then attract attention, and we finally arrive at the navigation and rescue equipment. The ship models are very numerous and they have been arranged in such a way that the visitor can get a good idea of how they were built.

The exhibition of foodstuffs consists of the same elements as that of Sweden; one sees here, so to speak, only canned fish, punch and brandy.


One of the most remarkable machines is the mechanical planer of Messrs. Jensen and Dahl, builders in Christiania. At one end of the machine a worker quickly slides a board, while at the other end a second worker must just as quickly pick it up and remove it, beautifully smooth and even. This very strong machine planes the wood on all four sides at the same time; at the same time it makes grooves and tongues, applies a frieze moulding to the boards, reducing their thickness. The speed, depending on the strength of the wood, is 10 to 30 metres per minute; the wood is directed by four pairs of large rollers, each turning on itself and pushing the thickest boards without resistance.

It goes without saying that the wood is also pressed as it passes under the iron, and a wheel lever allows the rollers to be raised at will. The wood is planed underneath by fixed irons in a movable part, which can be removed instantly as soon as it is necessary to sharpen them, and, to avoid the inconvenience of unevenness presented by badly sawn wood, a rotating tool placed before the fixed iron makes these disappear. Moreover, the excellent effect of this machine can be sufficiently appreciated by examining the Norwegian wood exhibited in the section; it has been entirely planed by this machine. It should be added that the shavings, instead of being thrown up and making dust, fall naturally under the machine frame, without clogging any organ.

Let us also mention a very fine type of improved locomobile of 6 horsepower, exhibited by Mr. Oluf Onsum, of Christiania. This distinguished builder has concentrated on simplifying the movement and parts of the machine, so that they can be removed from the boiler even while it is in operation. These parts are made of Norwegian iron, of the best quality, and of a very large surface. Thanks to the considerable extent of the heating surface, and to the sleeved cylinders, the machine achieves a very serious saving of fuel, and, as the steam tank is very large, boiling is completely avoided. The machine is provided with a very simple arrangement for the change of gear, and all the parts which bear friction are made of the best Swedish steel.

Another type, of 8 horsepower, differs from the preceding one only in that the moving parts are placed under the boiler, and mounted on a wrought-iron base, which makes it possible to make the machine transportable or fixed at will. This type offers the particular advantage of avoiding the causes of leakage, following the suppression of the trepidation of the machine, which is no longer fixed on the envelope of the boiler, but is independent of it.

Both machines have just been awarded a silver medal.

©Les Merveilles de l'Exposition de 1878