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Gallery of Machinery and its Annexes -

Gallery of Machinery and its Annexes at the Exhibition Expo Paris 1878

A walk through the machinery gallery at the Champ de Mars Palace is quite a journey, but an interesting one. It could have been even more so; unfortunately various causes prevented the exhibition of machines from being complete and truly universal, and among these causes we shall limit ourselves to recalling the too prolonged hesitation of the Congress of the United States to take a resolution as to the participation of this country in the Universal Exhibition. The delay which was the consequence forced the American exhibitors to prepare themselves with too much haste. The United States exhibition is nonetheless very beautiful and perhaps less incomplete than ours; but it shines above all by an extremely interesting selection of its agricultural machinery, which is not included in the machines we are visiting today.

The agricultural machinery is in fact part of the general agricultural equipment, which we will explore in turn. Similarly, locomotives are included in the railway equipment, and various navigation devices in the navigation and rescue equipment. Apart from a few scaphanes and one or two locomotives in the foreign gallery, together with Pulmann sleeping cars, there is nothing similar in the machinery gallery proper.

In sum, the present exhibition is, in this respect, inferior to that of Philadelphia, we must frankly confess. It is very interesting in spite of this, and sufficiently shows the progress made in the last ten years. We noticed several Corliss, Woolf and Compound machines. On the day of the inauguration, President Grant and Mr. George Corliss, each pressing a lever, set the whole gallery in motion. We had an inauguration of another kind; the motive power at the Champ de Mars is, moreover, very divided: we could only have an inauguration celebrated according to a hackneyed programme, of which popular enthusiasm was the original part.

Compound machines differ from others in that they have two, often three cylinders combined, to avoid the loss of heat that occurs during expansion in cylinders that are too long. The Woolf machine is built on the same principles. The Corliss machine, already noticed in Vienna in 1873, has only one cylinder, but on each side of this "cylinder are adapted an escape valve and an intake valve, which can be operated independently of each other, and which can be opened or closed at the appropriate moment and receive an impulse of such rapidity that they unmask the lights almost instantaneously. The first in navigation, the second in manufacturing, these two machines have produced a veritable revolution by the considerable saving of fuel that they allow. Without the Compound engine, steam navigation would be far from being able to reach the importance it has today.

The show presented by the gallery of French machines, which alone occupied as much space as all the machines in the foreign section, was a fairy tale.


GENERAL OVERVIEW

Let us first, before entering this splendid gallery, take a general look at the whole:
Entering the French section through the door of the Jena gallery, we find ourselves in the midst of sewing, quilting, hemming and embroidery machines of all shapes and sizes. Further on, there are machines for making felt hats and straw hats, for beating leather, for making chocolate, pastilles, pasta, soaps, candles; machines for pleating, piping, nailing and screwing shoes, for making trimmings; sounding and plunging machines; various crushers, hydraulic presses, lifts, distillery and sugar mill equipment; mechanical sawmills and machine tools from Arbey and others, for mechanical woodworking; wood cutting machines for matches; machines for tapping, threading, rolling, sharpening saws, etc.

The Fives-Lille Company exhibits a cane mill capable of producing 3,000 hectolitres per day; a machine for extracting ore, producing 450 tonnes, intended for Béthune; a glazing machine, etc. Here is a Thonnelier press and a balance for striking medals, and indeed they are struck, which the visitor gladly takes as a souvenir of the Exhibition. Not far from there are machines for making carbonated drinks, then machines for cutting cork, making corks, corking bottles, making tiles, tubular bricks; a diamond cutting factory. Let us also mention several cranes and various lifting machines, various magneto-electric motors, steam engines, including one of the Corliss system, steam pumps, a double cylinder rotary machine making up to 2,000 revolutions per minute, a magneto-electric sorter for separating iron or nickel from mixed ores.

The Compagnie de Bessèges exhibits a mechanical coal washing machine, a reduction of the one in operation on the extraction sites, which yields 300 tons of coal per day; various other devices for extracting and preparing ores, coal agglomerating machines, rock drilling and boring devices, precede or follow these, as well as high-powered bellows, a cold-air machine by Mr. Giffard, and rolling mills. Here is a machine for making gold-plated copper watch chains, which apparently makes no less than 15,000 metres a day. Then come the machines for combing, carding, spinning, weaving cotton, linen, hemp, wool, silk, etc.; for making velvet, knitwear, cloth, braids, ribbons, laces and many other things. All these machines are in motion; if some of them rest, it is only momentarily; it is enough to wait or to pass in front of them an hour or two later to see them working, and it is a spectacle worth seeing and even revisiting.

What remains to be seen of the French gallery is occupied by the various systems of autographic, lithographic and typographic presses, the series of which ends with the magnificent collection of Marinoni machines for printing newspapers; type foundry, stereotyping and paper-making machines, etc.; and finally a machine for mechanical composition and distribution, to which we shall have occasion to return.

Let us now enter into a detailed exposition of the most important of these machines.

If the reader is willing, we will begin our visit with the north gallery, but before entering it, we will give a few moments to an installation which has been both a success of interest and a success of curiosity.


PRINTING MACHINES.

Let us now enter the machine gallery.

What a hubbub! In addition to the noise of voices, you hear the great organs majestically intoning their hymns.

You can see the whole of this superb gallery at a glance.

It is an immense swarming of steel, the pistons, the shafts, all the nerves of the mechanics, come and go, go up and down, throw lightning bolts while accomplishing their furious race, but calculated to a second, and each one of them makes its voice heard which a trained ear can distinguish through the tumult.

Indeed, everyone knows that just as every human creature has its own voice, so each machine has its own voice.

The first machine that comes to mind is the Marinoni machine.

Printing machines are of great interest. In the English exhibition we admired the famous Ingram rotary machine; in the French exhibition, we find a machine of the same kind which seemed superior to us; we mean the great Marinoni machine, which distributed thousands of copies of the Petit Journal every day during the Exhibition.

Mr. Marinoni, moreover, shone very brightly at the Exposition of 1878.

He exhibited eight typographic machines of his system. His blank press, known as the universal press, was used to print the Paris Exposition newspaper on the very opening day of the Exposition, in front of a curious and enthusiastic crowd. It is the press that is still used for the printing of the Paris Exhibition. It is equipped with the mobile loading rollers, for which M. Marinoni is patented, and whose use produces such light and clean prints, while giving the ink more brilliance and strength.

The rotary presses for perfecting were built and popularised by the same company. They have been in use since 1867, when they installed seven of them, with six feeders, for printing the Petit Journal. Their great success is due to the addition of two other Marinoni inventions: the sheet separator, which makes it possible to send the sheets to as many mechanical feeders as necessary, and the sticky feeder, which gives a very high speed with the number of feeders needed to feed the machine. The continuity of their work is ensured today by the use of continuous or endless paper.

Our drawing shows the layout of these machines, where all the cylinders are on the same vertical line.

The print run is 40,000 copies per hour of the small penny newspaper format, and 20,000 of the large newspaper format. This machine also cuts, counts and folds the newspapers with the ordinary folding of French sheets, with five folds. This last improvement is applied for the first time; it is not yet in operation in France or abroad.

Opposite M. Marinoni, we find the superb rotary press of Jules Derriey, of equal production and perhaps even more valuable application, since it can, without any modification other than a change of gears, be adapted to several different formats. This rotary press is for continuous paper, with cylindrical plates, which can receive galvanic plates if necessary, as is the practice for the printing of Le Monde illustré, at M. Dalloz. It is equipped with a device for separating and counting the sheets, which are mechanically sent in bundles of one hundred to the output tray. When the machine, like those at the Imprimerie Nationale, at the Moniteur, is set up for several formats, the paper is cut before printing by means of the simple gear change we have mentioned.

The great advantage of this machine, which is very simple, very solid and very small, is that the operator has all the parts in front of him and literally within his reach. The paper is wetted by a special machine; the water is placed in a tank between the roll of paper being unwound and the one being wound. In this tank a metal cylinder rotates at a much lower speed than the paper roll. The sheet of paper coming from the dry roll is forced to pass over a metal cylinder, which by its rotation causes a light layer of water to be applied; rollers placed in front of and behind the metal cylinder force the paper to lick the metal cylinder and to wipe it clean. The paper thus soaked is used twenty-four hours later on the printing machine; the sheet wound on each mandrel has 5 kilometres.


THE ALAUZET PRESS.

Rotary press with illustrations.

Here again is one of our most esteemed manufacturers: Mr. P. Alauzet has built an express rotary press for illustrations, which is one of the astonishments of this class 60, so full of surprises. This machine, admirable for its precision and smoothness of operation, works with a single composition, thus saving on the number of printing plates and setting strokes; moreover, it completely eliminates all cords. The endless paper is wet, cut and folded mechanically, and the ink is also transferred mechanically, into its reservoirs, called inkwells. Finally, a provision common to all Alauzet machines
Alauzet and very valuable machines, a brake attached to the clutch lever allows the machine to stop running instantly.

This machine produces about 4,000 copies per hour, of lm,64 long by Om,57 wide, soaked, printed, cut and folded.

Mr. Alauzet also exhibits a very sophisticated lithographic machine, in which, by a very special arrangement of the wedge, he has made it almost impossible to break the stones; then a two-colour machine, for double grape format, whose inking is admirably combined. Everyone in the trade appreciates the extreme importance of this last point; there are few who do not know the patented system due to Mr. Alauzet, by which a correct, fine and uniform touch is obtained.

Let us mention in passing the great progress made in the construction of chromolithographic machines, which today give results that are highly appreciated by the public, who never cease to surround them at the Champ de Mars.


THE ZINCOGRAPHIC MACHINE OF MR. WIBART.

As early as 1818, Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, had indicated the possibility of applying this process to printing on zinc plates. Since then, the means of making this process practical had been sought in vain; the preparation of the plates was insufficient, and the zinc could not be applied or fixed rigidly enough on the ordinary lithographic machine.

Mr. F. Wibart has succeeded in preparing zinc, drawing on it, writing, transferring, fixing or acidifying the writing, drawing, transfers and decals with greater ease, with less labour, and with more finesse and solidity than is possible on lithographic stone. The perfection of the result is at least equal, the zinc plates are preserved indefinitely without alteration and offer the advantage of being cut at will in all formats.

The machine which uses the plates thus prepared for printing is a continuous circular movement machine, in the form of a rolling mill whose two cylinders, which can be brought together at will, give as much pressure as desired. The larger cylinder occupies the central part of the machine, and receives over about half of its development the zinc plate, which is applied to it by means of rotating jaws, by which it is fixed in the most rigid manner. The other half of the cylinder serves as a table for the distribution of the ink. The smaller one, which is next to and slightly below the larger one, is the printing cylinder, carrying the sheet of paper.

The ink fountain, the ink rollers, the distributors, the ink keys and the feeders are arranged with all the necessary precautions to ensure that the inking is perfect and the printing absolutely clear.

The machine shown here can be operated by hand or by steam and installed without a pit or masonry; it operates without jolting, without noise, and without costing more than a lithographic machine; it takes up much less space, is less heavy and produces more. It takes up much less space, is less heavy and produces more. The setting and setting up are obviously less difficult, since the thickness of the zinc sheet is regular. The usefulness of this machine comes above all from the enormous savings it provides through the price difference in favour of zinc over stone, which is becoming increasingly rare and expensive, and through the ease of handling and storage of zinc plates. Finally, the amount of printing done on zinc boards can be much greater than on stone. The results obtained today allow us to predict a great future for Mr. Wibart's invention.


A TYPOGRAPHIC MASTERPIECE.

We have just spoken of typographic machines, so this is a good opportunity to remind the reader of a real masterpiece which may have escaped him; for it is above all, appreciable by specialists.

A typographer, Mr. Sixte Albert, is exhibiting at the Champ de Mars, in the section devoted to typography, two proofs of drawings obtained by means of simple typographic nets, as well as the forms - we cannot say here of the plates which were used to draw them, and whose examination alone can give an idea of the difficulties overcome. These two prints, of magnificent execution, are the Diagramme des vents, according to the theory of the illustrious American hydrographer Maury on atmospheric circulation, and the Laocoon which we reproduced in a previous issue.

We do not insist otherwise, because, after having seen the proof, it is the form that should be seen, with its tangle of nets of all dimensions, especially very small ones, curved, twisted, crossed in all directions, testifying to a lively artistic feeling, a skill and a patience that are certainly uncommon. If we have recalled the work of Mr. Sixtus Albert's predecessors, it is mainly to show how few they are, and also how their merits were appreciated. We have no doubt that those of Mr. Albert, perhaps even greater, will receive their reward.

Let us add that, with the aim of simplification, Mr. S. Albert, abandoning the beaten path of mitre thread assembly, assembles his own at right angles or by shoulder, with such a great straightness that it does not appear anything to the impression.


THE SEWING MACHINES.

The printing machines were near the manual work gallery, the sewing machines were at the entrance to the palace, in front of the Jena gallery.
Let us speak at once about these graceful machines and let us first recall in a few quick words what we said about their invention when we examined the specimens sent by neighbouring countries. The invention of mechanical sewing is due to a Frenchman, Thimonnier, born in 1832 at l'Arbresle (Rhône). It is to America and England, however, that we owe the introduction of machines in sewing. It was Elias Howe who first found the way to make them easy and practical.

Do you hear those thousand and one ticks?

We are in the realm of sewing machines, we must give up counting them, but one cannot help but notice the skill and tireless agility of the young and graceful women who operate them.

First of all, here is Mr. Mayer's elastic rod dressing machine.

This new machine, says the inventor, is unique in its kind, by its great simplicity, by its small volume (0,50 cent, square), by the cleanliness of its preparation, by its speed (four minutes per pair), because it avoids the folding of the linings with the needle, because it replaces advantageously the rare female workers in this kind of work in the small cities, whereas the first person who comes, man or woman, even a child, can in less than two hours learn to make it work

Now comes the Brunswich Silencer, the American machine and the New-express.

The same company exhibits noise-free sewing machines.

One lesson is enough to learn how to operate it and it never causes fatigue.

It is suitable for all industries: tailors, seamstresses, lingerie makers, dressmakers, corsetieres, apiecers, socks makers, waistcoats makers, upholsterers, shoemakers, etc., can use it.

The high speed of the machine, the speed with which the work is carried out and the lucrative remuneration that it brings, make it invaluable for all those who need an excellent machine.

There is also the garment pressing machine.

This machine is as indispensable to tailors as the sewing machine.

The most painful part of their trade is the use of those heavy and inconvenient tiles, which burn the hands, tire the chest, and always end up destroying the most robust health.

With the garment pressing machine, this danger disappears. Simple and easy to use, the machine presses very energetically, without causing the least fatigue to the worker, and the work is done better and faster than with ordinary tiles.

To press tiles by hand, the worker is obliged to always have three or four irons in the fire; with the pressing machine, this inconvenience is avoided, the internally heated tile retains the same degree of heat for several hours, with a saving of fuel of more than 50%.

All master masons and workers who are equipped with pressing machines have long recognised the advantages.

Here is the Mignonne, by Mr. Escoude, a graceful little family sewing machine; then the Brion machines: the Petite Silencieuse, with a one-thread chain, three guides; the Petit Bijou, working by hand and foot, sewing lingerie, cloth, and making the stitching on both sides, etc., etc.

The Peugeot company exhibited French sewing machines of various calibres, including a serger. The invention is absolutely new.

Let us now speak of the house of Hurtu and Hautin.

Here are three remarkable types of family machines: the Merveilleuse, the Productive and the Abeille, solid and elegant, which their modest price puts within the reach of all purses.

Next comes the poissé thread machine, an ingenious creation which, in addition to saving 90°/0 on labour, provides valuable services to industry, and in particular to saddlery, by sewing up to thicknesses of leather of more than three centimetres.

Messrs. Hurtu and Ilautin also show us an embroidery machine, by means of which the magnificent laces of Alençon, Chantilly, Valenciennes, and Venetian stitch hangings, etc., are imitated to a fault. Chasubles, handkerchiefs, dresses, coats, etc., are embroidered with no less success.

Finally, we shall mention a suspended machine, designed to produce, while sewing and by the effect of the stitching itself, the most graceful contours on foot covers or other wadded objects.

Here are the machines of Messrs Mutel and Dupont, which fold from one millimetre to four centimetres deep without changing the cylinder.
They pleat paper, muslin, percale, wool, silk, and all kinds of fabrics; the manufacturers guarantee three thousand metres of pleats per day.

Mr. Jacob and Mr. Goulard exhibit a new model of sewing machine with an unlimited number of needles with variable distance between each needle, especially intended for work in the field of wadding for furs and clothing, for manufacturers of caps and other similar industries.

This new arrangement makes it possible to execute as many parallel stitches as the machine has needles in one go, very quickly and with perfect regularity.

In addition to this important advantage, the machines are of a very simple mechanism and therefore easy to use.

They do not require more force than single-needle machines and do not take up more space.

In order to meet the various industries for which they are intended, four models have been created in which the length of the arm varies from 20 to 55 centimetres, the distance between each needle can vary according to the purchaser's wishes and the machine is built according to the dimensions indicated.
Let us also mention the Favorite des Dames and the Canadienne of Mr. Vigneron, delightful little machines, soft and silent, finally, for the use of the women of the world; then the American button sewing machine, the sewing machines at 12 fr. S0, the machine of Mr. Légat for sewing hats, etc., etc.


MINING EQUIPMENT.

Today, there are mines which extract, per ten hours, from a depth of more than five hundred metres, up to 600 and 800 tonnes. It was therefore necessary to improve the equipment.

The Compagnie de Fives-Lille failles flat cables almost exclusively in steel; their strands are multiplied to allow greater flexibility for the large sections required by the loads to be removed. The cages are multi-stage to accommodate a greater number of wagons, and almost always made of steel to reduce the suspended weight.

At the same time, the safety devices, parachutes, wheel preventers, signals, etc., have been multiplied and simplified to make their operation safer, in spite of the speeds of circulation allowed today in the shafts. The iron roller frames became widespread because they made it possible to achieve a new safety condition by establishing the rollers at a greater height above the shaft opening. Rigid guides, made of wood or iron, also generally replace the round cable guides wherever the workers' ascent to the shaft requires an effective parachute. Today, it is the rule to raise or lower workers to the shaft wherever mining exceeds 300 metres.

The two machines exhibited by Fives-Lille and intended for the mines of Béthune are established with all the improvements we have just mentioned. They are horizontal and coupled on the same shaft by right-angle cranks. The steam pistons have a diameter of 900 millimetres and a stroke of 2 metres. The cables are wound on drums whose initial diameter is 2.5 metres and whose final diameter, for a depth of 800 metres, is no less than 7.15 metres. The diameter of the reels is 8 metres.

All the operating levers are within reach of the mechanic, who stands between the two machines, opposite the free space between the two reels, so that he can see the cages arriving at the shaft opening; the sounding devices and the signals, together with some very ingenious, but somewhat too technical, particular arrangements, are combined in such a way as to prevent an accident by an automatic movement of a whole system of rods which, if necessary, acts to avoid an accident. Irregularities and stoppages in operation, which are always serious in the case of extraction, are also avoided by the perfect solidity of the frames, by the simplicity of shape of all the components which, by preventing any abnormal movement, guarantee the whole unit complete stability. The distribution, of the Audemar system, is made in each machine by four valves, two of which are for emission and two for exhaust.

We will briefly mention two drawings representing, one of the air compression machines (5 cubic metres per minute at 5 kilograms of pressure), used in the mines of Béthune, Anzin, Vicoigne and Nœux; the other an extraction trestle with floors and metal frames, executed for the mines of Liévin, and in which everything has been combined in such a way as to combine the greatest number of chances against an accident.

The visit to the machine gallery is, as the reader will see, as interesting as it is instructive; but it should not be forgotten that part of its wonders were to be found in the annex to the gallery.

Thus, most of the large companies, including the Anzin mine, exhibited in this annex very interesting relief plans of a coal mine with dwellings and installations on the surface.

To get an exact idea of the exhibition of the Société de Terre-Noire (la Voulte and Bessèges), one must go to the park of the Champ de Mars where this Société has erected, for the exhibition of its products, an elegant pavilion which is situated in the park of the Champ de Mars, close to the gate of the Seine behind the pavilion of Creuzot, and which cost, it is said, 80,000 francs.

One notices there first of all an ingenious hypsometric relief of the mines, iron and coal, of Bessèges, arranged in such a way that one can follow with one's eyes the interior workings of the galleries at different levels, study the base and the thickness of the layers of ore, all the details in a word that the system of sections would only let see very imperfectly

The manufactured products of this Company are mainly marine chains and iron beams; steel tubes for cannon parts, frets, finished cannons, cast iron tubes for pipes, for hollow projectiles, etc. We note a hydraulic press cylinder and a steel lever, without blowers, for a 400 horsepower machine, and a beautiful model of a double-cylinder Compound blower machine: one of the cylinders, weighing 10,700 kilograms, is exhibited behind the model.

The Terre-Noire forges were the first in France to adopt the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel, and this adoption required a whole series of very interesting experiments, presided over by M. Euverte, the director of the Company, to arrive at the discovery of the exact quantity of manganese that should be introduced into the iron at the time of fusion. The exposition of the raw material, in different degrees of perfection, from the state of the ore, passing through those of iron more or less mixed with manganese, to end with that of iron manganese in the appropriate dose, to be thrown into the incandescent metal, constitutes one of the most curious and instructive parts of the history of steel making.

There are so many curiosities of various kinds in this gallery of machines, which is always so frequented!

One remembers the band saw, with which an entire piece of furniture was cut out of a block of wood as big as a fist, and this in such a way that the whole thing fitted back together so well after the operation that it seemed as if the block of wood had not been touched.

There was also the bottle filling machine, the corking machine and, further on, instruments for uncorking.

All kinds of tools were there, to the great joy of the public, who examined one or the other, depending on whether they belonged to a particular profession or not.

The composing machines also aroused curiosity, but to a lesser degree; they do not appear to be absolutely practical.

For several years now, this idea has been tormenting inventors.

Not one of them has been successful.

What about the little lift that everyone wanted to try?

What about the chairs where you could be weighed? How many people must have carefully kept the ticket that recorded their weight!

A few steps away, please consider this gigantic panoply which occupied a section of wall almost fifty metres wide and which consisted entirely of saws.

In the centre, a huge circular saw, measuring 1.80 metres in diameter, was striking.

It was the exhibition of Mr. Mougin, who made serious progress in this type of manufacturing.

In the past we were dependent on Germany and England, today we export to all countries.

And the bag-making machine!

As Mr. Ernest d'Hervilly witty described it in the Rappel. The worker that Mr. Virey shows us, and who makes ad libitum two kinds of bags, small and medium, would be capable of making, of the latter, 63 million per year, and of the former 94 million. She cuts, folds and glues medium-sized bags at 130 per minute, and small ones at 180: do the math.

"Because all you have to do is supply it with paper and it does the rest. You give her a roll of paper, she gives back as many bags as that roll can supply. And there is no waste and no scraping.

"The machine takes the form of a table that is longer than it is wide: at one end, at the bottom, is placed the paper rolled up on a rotating axis. The free edge of this immense sheet is engaged in the organs of the machine, and the latter is given its freedom, that is to say, its movement; after which, there is nothing left to do but to observe the famous precept of the economists: let it go and let it pass; the paper is caught in a gear, it will pass through it entirely.

"Arranged along the length of the table, a series of working organs, between which all the operations to be performed on a piece of paper to make a bag of it have been distributed, give to each fragment cut out of the large sheet all the necessary ways.

"First of all, indeed, this fragment is automatically cut out; this is the first operation. At the same time as it is separated from the roll, two small cuts are made in one of its edges, perpendicular to that edge; cuts whose height determines the height of the folds which will constitute the bottom of the bag. At the same time, but on the opposite edge to the previous one, an indentation is made which, when the bag is finished, will be entirely included in one of its sides. This side will thus be lower than the other, so that the bag can be opened without fumbling, without wasting time, and without the grocer or druggist having to look like a puffed-up angel and play the role of Aeolus.

In this gallery, as well as in its annex, there was a large number of weaving machines.

We will give you a description of one of those that struck us the most.

It is the wool weaving machine of Messrs Piérard-Parfaite et fils, of Reims, mechanical constructors and wool spinners.

After a beater has continuously opened the wool and caused the dust to fall without damaging the rovings, the latter are passed through the bath and the forks of the degreaser.

The machine that Messrs Piérard-Parfaite have built for automatic degreasing with a steam injector is an admirable machine.

The front end is of a special combination, giving less evaporation and waste than the double cards, because the wool is better arranged and just as well carded as with the latter.

The wool must then be smoothed and dried, by passing it through new baths of soapy water, and then under cylinders which press on it with a very strong pressure in order to express all the liquid; from there the ribbons come between four large drying cylinders which are heated with steam; the ribbons passing around their circumference dry as they advance towards the fluting machine, they are conveniently returned to strong bobbins.

The latter is equipped with funnels which are combined in such a way as to turn the ribbons completely flat, so as to avoid the cuts which are so harmful to the regularity of the work. The reels, while rotating on themselves with a linear speed uniform to their circumference, are given a back and forth movement by special racks which carry out the winding in the best conditions. The ribbons in their course are constantly directed by guides preventing any deviation and ensuring their exact entry into the basins, their engagement between the rollers and the cylinders.

The great merit of this machine is that it gives the worker all the facilities to conduct and supervise the operation, so as to avoid the costly waste which generally occurs in this complicated work, carried out in a continuous manner.

The wool has been stretched, then combed with a removable comb; it is stretched again, rolled by special devices, and then wound into bobbins by a large machine which is the length of a loom. It is then passed to the spinning machine.

Gears which have a considerable saving of driving force over the rope spindles.

Another improvement consists in the application to this machine of the Dauphinot marriage breaker, which can exist on the machines of any textile spinning system.

Its purpose is to remove on the spinning machine the accidentally doubled threads, which, under the name of marriage, cause bars in the fabrics by which they are considerably depreciated.

When the carriage is pulled out, with the marriage breaker at rest, the hooks are raised above the drawing rollers; when the carriage reaches two-thirds of its travel, the mechanism shown turns the driving pulley and the whole system is slowly lowered between the threads.

If there is a marriage, it will be seized by one of the hooks, and, when the carriage is retracted, the drive shaft turning in the opposite direction will unwind the drive chain; at this moment, the hooks, brought briskly back to their original position by the action of the counterweight, will remove the threads and break them.

The loom has 500 spindles. The bobbins coming out of this loom pass through the vertical winding machine, which prepares them to be put on the warping creel. From the cylinders of the warping machine, the threads, which are gathered in parallel over a very large width, are glued on the special machine, which is also shown in our supplement. This sizing machine is mechanically unwound and automatically wound, giving uniform tension to the warp threads; the friction plate then serves as a moderator, without the sizing worker having to adjust it constantly. The basin is heated in a bain-marie: the inlets and outlets of steam and water are free, so there are no more accidents to fear; the temperature is kept more constant and becomes easier to regulate:
It is enough to put a thermometer in the overflow basin, instead of waiting for the heating action to occur in the glue. This basin is fitted with two large pressure cylinders with a small plunger cylinder and a copper tensioner to ensure that the wires are properly subjected to the action of the glue.

The arrangement of their supports and the bearings prevents the glue from flowing out, which happens when they are placed outside this basin.

Among the generators, we shall mention the inoperable generator of MM. J. Belleville and Co.

A group of three hundred horsepower of these generators was assigned to the motive power service of the French section and in addition supplied steam to more than forty machines running all day.

The controlled steaming of these generators during the months of July, August and September, according to the figures of the leaded water meter, amounted to 3,865,370 kilograms of steam, instead of the 1,840,000 kilograms provided for in the contract with the Commissariat Général de l'Exposition.

The quantity of coal burnt during the same period was 440,720 kilograms, i.e. a production of 8 k. 770 of dry steam per kilogram of raw coal (all lean coal from Aniche), including ignitions, hours of suspension of work and the daily extinction of the fires.

A permanent stream of steam, taken from the main pipe, shows that the steam produced is always perfectly dry.

Since 20 April, when the Belleville generators were put into operation, no cleaning of the interior of the tubes of these generators has been carried out, despite the fact that they produce twice the amount of steam stipulated in the contract; their service has not been interrupted for a single moment for cleaning or maintenance.


LARGE MACHINE TOOLS.

The machine tool is today on a path of progress which will not stop.

The machine tool, as its name indicates, is only the ordinary organ, more considerable in size, and receiving the mechanical action of a motor more powerful than the worker's arm, but accomplishing the same function as the tool moved by the latter. Its general purpose is to transform a solid mass into a specific shape and size, for which the tool is rigorously constructed. The mass must therefore be perfectly stable, and the tool must have absolutely geometric working conditions.

This can be easily seen if one remembers to see a worker at work. The machine tool has the unique but immense advantage over the manual tool of a more regular and faster action and of a much more considerable production. The progress obviously consists in making it more automatic, more vigorous and capable of handling larger pieces.

Machine tools for metalworking comprise a large number of categories, depending on the variety of work they are required to perform. Lathes of all kinds, threading and tapping machines, milling machines, shearing machines, bending machines, hammer drills, stamping machines, drawing machines, etc., make up the best known branches, not to mention special machines for precious metals and precision work.

Here again we find the Fives-Lille Company, which was so attractive to visitors to the Exhibition.

Establishments of this importance, which contain tools on a large scale, are admirable appreciators of the indispensable qualities of the instruments they need. For this reason, almost all of them have taken to making them themselves, and have thus given this construction a remarkable perfection.

Of these machines, one can plane pieces 3 metres long and 1.5 metres wide; the mobile plate is activated by a screw with a large nut; it has a greater speed on the return journey than on the outward journey; without going into any technical details, we will add that the shapes and dimensions of the main pieces are established in such a way as to avoid any vibrations which are harmful to the correct operation and which could give bad results for the work produced.

Next to this is a machine for mortising workpieces measuring 0.300 m high by 0.800 m wide and 0.950 m long. The workpieces fixed on the circular table can have for each stroke of the vertical tool, together or separately, automatic feed rates varying from 0m,0005 to 0m,002. The hardened and tempered crankshaft is held on the knob side in ratchet bearings, with a screw wedge on the opposite side in a hardened and tempered iron ring.

It is above all in general mechanics that French industry shows the continuous progress achieved less by new discoveries than by the increasingly complete understanding of the real conditions imposed on motor devices. The characteristic note is found mainly in the increasing application of the economic principle of the division of labour, which makes it possible to arrive at products of a perfection previously considered chimerical.

The real progress of mechanics can be summed up today in the very fact of the more and more general use of steam.

The locomobile is in common use in all industries, even in agriculture.

The manufacturer's efforts tend to reduce fuel consumption to the lowest possible limit in relation to the work produced.

We are still a long way from the realisation of the theoretical data; however, the saving of fuel through more immediate contact between the boiler and the cylinders has become more frequent, thanks to the general use of locomobiles, semi-fixed machines, and, in the fixed machines themselves, to the care taken in the distribution mechanism.

Two new types seem to have entered into the habits of our industrialists; the machine with Corliss, Sulzer or other triggers, where the distribution takes place through four independent orifices, fitted with automatic valves operated by the machine; then the Compound machines, in which two unequal cylinders, separated by a steam reservoir, make it possible to vary the triggering at will between very different limits, and also to have direct steam act simultaneously in each of them, so as to develop more energetic effects.

Here again we find the workshops of Fives-Lille with a 40 horsepower machine, giving movement to sections 10 and 11 of the machine gallery. Passing over all the technical details, we shall characterise it as follows with an authorised engineer: "It has small harmful spaces, an automatic purge for the cylinders, an expansion by the regulator, and a very ingenious system of auxiliary slides for starting up.

The locomobile is of the strength of 12 horsepower; its speed is 105 revolutions per minute and the diameter of its piston is 0.210 m. It is an excellent tool, solidly established, provided with all modern improvements. Two Compound machines, Demenge system, one fixed of 40 horsepower, the other locomobile of 6 horsepower, are also exhibited by this establishment. Two generators established by him provide motive power to the machine gallery. They have rectangular fireplaces, and each has a heating surface of 250 square metres. They are fed by two suction injectors, the Turck system and the Vabe system, both of which are the exclusive property of the Company.

The characteristic point of the improvement of the boilers is, in general, in the creation of the type with vertical tubes with double circulation which produces a very fast vaporization. Moreover, the freedom given to manufacturers by the legislation, making them feel the full weight of the heavy responsibility they incur, has led them to multiply care, studies and precautions of all kinds. The industry has gained generators of a more economic and more perfect output at the same time as of a more complete safety. The envelopes were preferably made of high quality sheet metal, rather than thick, and the safety devices were both multiplied and perfected.


THE TESTING DEVICES.

It is well known what the purpose of the testing devices is. It is to give in a certain and instantaneous way the strength of any metal which it is intended to subject to traction, compression or torsion.

We have noticed some curious machines invented by Mr. Thomasset:
A machine for testing axles and tyres, with a force of 100 horsepower;
A machine for testing traction, the same one that was used for the acceptance tests of the metals used in the construction of the Palais du Champ de Mars;
A bending, compression and punching test machine;
A machine for tensile and bending tests;
A machine for testing fabrics and papers, with a power of 400 horsepower;

And, finally, a machine for torsion tests, which is most interesting.


THE SHREDDERS.

Mr. Turgan, who, in France, has treated this question from above, begins by giving the following reasoning made by Mr. Menier:
"The two greatest enemies of man are distance and time: distance is almost entirely mastered, since, with the telegraphic wire and its new applications, we have intellectual ubiquity, and with the railways we achieve materially a result almost as satisfactory.

"Time is thus partly defeated, as far as man himself is concerned, but the earth on which he acts, either on the surface to produce by cultivation grain, wine, meat, sugar, wool, hemp and other foodstuffs or textiles, etc.; or in its depths to extract ores, the earth is still rebellious to the rapidity of transformation that M. Menier would like to impose on it.

Let's pulverise," he said; "since we have now studied and tamed the physical forces of nature, let's use them to defeat her.
"Let us pulverize, for by pulverizing we shall indefinitely increase the surfaces of contact and, consequently, the rapidity of the reactions, and we shall thus offer as food to the plants materials which have become soluble in a few months, whereas, naturally, if these same bodies had been left in the state of blocks, it would have taken thousands of years for them to become edible to vegetable beings.

Agricultural practice," continues Mr. Turgan, "has always done nothing else: ploughing, harrowing, and rolling have the purpose of pulverising the topsoil, in order to make it penetrate with air and water, and to make it susceptible to all the reactions produced by the decomposition of plants, a decomposition which constantly emits gases in their nascent state, and principally carbonic acid, which changes the insoluble proto-carbonates into soluble bicarbonates.

"So far, only centuries have accomplished these transformations.

"In order to determine the course of these transformations, M. Menier carried out a series of experiments and represented their results by the cubes mentioned above; thus, he was led to affirm that given a cube of 2 decimetres on a side cut from a compact block, this cube would only be dissolved in 6,600 years.

"If we divide this cube into pieces of one decimetre edge, the solution will take place in 1,666 years.

"In cubes of one centimetre, it will take another 166 years.

"Crushed into fragments of one millimetre, the solid will be dissolved in 16 years.

"Crushed into tenths of a millimetre, one year and seven months will be enough.

"Finally, pulverised to one hundredth of a millimetre, it will take only 58 days to make the elements of which it is composed assimilable.

"Thus, rocks containing significant proportions of potash, such as feldspars, granites and volcanic rocks, can be used as fertiliser. The role of potash in agriculture is now too well known for us to need to emphasise the importance of its use.

Studying then the various crushers of Messrs Carr, Bough, Anduze, Vapart, Hi-guette and the machine built by M. Arbey and invented by Messrs Durand and Chapitel, he expresses himself thus:
"Among the sometimes animated crushers, visitors will notice, in the annex of the Avenue La Bourdonnaye, class 55, exhibited next to the wagons, an absolutely new device whose principle is based on the most complete possible imitation of hand crushing.

"It was invented by Messrs. Durand and Cha-pitel and built by Mr. Arbey; there is no friction, pressure or crushing; the crushing takes place by the violent and, as it were, instantaneous blow of molten steel masses thrown in full flight by the rotation of a cylinder: the crushing is carried out by a machine which is not a machine of the same type. The object to be broken falls through an upper hopper, slides on an inclined table made of a steel plate three centimetres thick and pierced with holes, receives the shock of the mass at the moment when the pierced table becomes horizontal and slightly curved.

"If the pieces are sufficiently reduced by the blow to pass through the holes in the grid, they pass through it; those that have escaped the first shock immediately receive another, and so on until the work is completed.

"The shaft that carries the hammers is driven at a speed of seventeen hundred revolutions per minute, so it is easy to understand what formidable percussion the materials introduced into the trough formed by the perforated plate, which, after having been extended under the hammers, rises obliquely backwards and serves as a sifting grid, are exposed to. In fact, when the hammers rise up after striking, they act like a shovel, removing the crushed material and throwing it violently against the grid.

"Several models of the Durand et Chapitel machine are in daily use and show the power of this new machine: there are hammers from sixty kilograms to one kilogram, and sieves of all sizes.

"Primitively invented for the preparation of macadam, ballast and concrete, the apparatus was used with advantage for the pulverization of coke, then for the work of green bones and phosphates, in order to prepare these materials for the work of the grinders or other pulverizers.

"The large model of Baugh's mill, intended for pulverising ores, phosphates and other very hard bodies, is very reminiscent of the old pepper mill in a gigantic proportion: A large cast-iron funnel, armed with strong teeth arranged in a helix, receives the body to be ground; in the centre of the funnel pivots a shaft armed with projections which drives and presses against the fixed teeth the body to be ground; after a first pulverisation, the material passes between two toothed surfaces, arranged conically in the opposite direction of the funnel.

"In order to prevent the apparatus from breaking, in case of jamming by the passage of a too resistant body, counterweights are arranged as in the rolls of rolling mills.

"Messrs. Baugh's have displayed in jars all the powders produced by their apparatus, from the hardest blende to grain flour. Their shelf is very cleverly arranged.

"The Anduze mill, while not as new as the Vapart, is only a few years old*; like the Garr mill, it turns perpendicular to the ground, instead of pivoting on an axis and moving horizontally on the surface of the earth like the millstones and other similar mills.

"Like the Carr, it must be driven with great speed; it acts by impact, pressure, sectioning and tearing, which enables it to reduce light and soft bodies to powdery fragments as required. With the Anduze triturator mill, we have even made feather or cork powder. With this apparatus, I have seen rope, old espadrilles and fishing nets reduced to powdery filaments; glass, paper, pebbles, phosphates and horn crushed into powder; and finally, wheat ground into flour.

"The apparatus consists of a hopper through which the objects enter between two toothed cast-iron rings which pass one in front of the other with a degree of spacing more or less close, according to the tightening or loosening of a worm screw controlled by a small wheel outside the apparatus; this wheel can be made to act, even during the work, and the size of the powder can be varied at will.

"The teeth of the crowns form concentric saws and decrease in volume and spacing as they approach the outer edge; centrifugal force forces the material to be ground to pass first between the wider teeth and then gradually between the narrower ones.

"Large Anduze mills, intended for ores, phosphates and other hard and heavy bodies, are built by Messrs Mignon and Rouart.

"A medium-sized model is available for wheat milling.

"Small Anduze of all shapes and sizes are manufactured at Beau-court by Messrs. Japy and are reserved for domestic use in grinding coffee, pepper, etc."


THE MOTORS.

We have spoken of the generators of Mr. J. Belleville, let us now devote a special chapter to the engines; we will first name those of Mr. Edouard Boyer.

The first engine consists of a vertical machine of the Wolf system, with two cylinders, enclosed in a common envelope and with a balance. A circular staircase, with a double flight, allows access to the upper parts of the machine for the maintenance of the upper parts. The nominal force of 25 horsepower can be easily increased to 50 horsepower, measured on the flywheel shaft and under such conditions that, with an expansion equal to seven times the volume of the intake, the steam consumption will not reach 9 kilograms per hour per horse.

The second engine is a single-cylinder horizontal machine, with condensation and variable expansion by a Watt regulator, with crossed connecting rods. Its nominal force is 50 horsepower, but that theoretically developed on the flywheel shaft is 100 horsepower, with operation at five atmospheres, and the admission of steam during 1/8 of the piston stroke: in these conditions, the consumption will be 9 kilograms of steam per hour and per horse.

Each of the two machines drives a transmission shaft 50 m long and 80 mm in diameter, the segments of which are joined by a cylindrical-conical sleeve.

Two steel clamps are sufficient to tighten this coupling, which has, over all known systems, the advantage of not having protruding bolts or keys, which are so often the cause of horrible accidents. The transmissions from the machines to the shafts are made directly from the flywheels to the pulleys fitted to the transmission; the flywheels and pulleys each have six Y-slots in which six round hemp or cotton cables are inserted, replacing the single belt. This special and new mode of transmission was employed, some years ago, in certain factories in Scotland; but this is the first time it has been successfully introduced into France.


RURAL AND FORESTRY EQUIPMENT.

This class still includes engines, then cultivation and soil preparation machines, machines for sowing and row crops, machines for harvesting and hay cultivation, machines for ginning cereals and other plants, miscellaneous machines and special appliances, rural buildings, equipment for viticulture, forestry and tobacco manufacture.

We will not go into detail about all these various branches, but will limit ourselves to mentioning the most salient aspects:
As far as engines are concerned, here are Mr. Albaret's steam engines and locomotives.

Let us mention the most interesting one, the one which is intended to facilitate night work in the fields.
The electric machine consists of: 1° an ordinary locomobile producing the driving force; 2° a gallows used to carry the lantern and the regulator, all mounted on four wheels to allow the machine to be moved easily.

The locomotive steam engine, similar to the model usually used, is of the horizontal type with a tubular boiler, with a power of three to four horses; it goes without saying that, if it were to be used to give motion to a threshing machine, a stronger engine would have to be chosen.

The Gramme machine is placed under the cylindrical body and in front of the firebox. Attached to a cast iron skid, bolted to the boiler, it is driven by means of a belt from a pulley on the locomotive's crankshaft. The mast is at the front of the machine and is certainly the most important part. The whole thing is easily transportable and requires no prior installation to operate.

The mast is made of iron tubes fitted into each other and stopped by brackets that can be easily mounted and dismantled. It is also mounted on a horizontal axle, which hinges on two trunnions. The stem can also be rotated around this axis, so that it can be folded down for dismantling.

At the front of the chimney is a small chain winch operated by gears and a crank; this chain passes over a pulley with a groove fixed to the upper part of the chimney; it is enough to turn the drum to obtain, according to the direction, the lowering or the raising of the mast. The lantern is placed at the end of the gallows where it is held by a rope passed over small pulleys. It can be lowered at will, to change the coals, adjust the regulators, etc., or when the machine needs to be moved to light another point. In this case, the lantern is placed on the winch frame.

What shall we mention next? A considerable number of merry-go-rounds, threshing machines, locomotives and locomobiles, etc.

Let us note, however, that there has been unquestionable progress; Mr. Turgan puts it in these terms:
"This year, the improvements in harvesting machines are very interesting, for we have succeeded in combining four kinds of binder-harvester, that is to say, not only making javelina, but also the sheaf all bound. But before stating these improvements, should I not, for the benefit of farmers who have never seen the new tools or who have only seen them immobile in regional competitions, briefly describe these precious aids and say what their constituent parts are.

"A moulder is a machine driven by one or more horses, the purpose of which is to separate the stalks of cereals from the ground, arrange them in parallel bundles, called javelles, and deposit them gently on the field at a sufficiently great distance, so that the carriage and the machine have their passage absolutely free for the next turn.
"It is a saw blade with large, sharp teeth, which a rapid back and forth movement causes to cross with the teeth of a fixed bar, forming a comb. A steering wheel bends the head of the wheat slightly towards the blade, playing the role of the left hand in sickle-cutting.

"Laterally is an apron placed at the rear of the cutting blade, on which the arms of the flywheel arrange the crop parallel to the moment when the rake picks it up and throws it on the ground outside the machine's track.

"The movement is usually given by the rotation of an internally toothed wheel that rests on the ground and at the same time serves as a support.

"The resistance must be less than the pulling force, otherwise it will break; therefore the various force components: resistance of the wheat to the section, weight of the rakes and pallets, various friction and other elements of effort, must be less than the force determined by the pulling of the horses.

"And, in order that the carriage is not overworked, it is important that these resistances are significantly less than the power that determines the forward translation.
With regard to woodworking, we find the exposition of M. Arbey Arbey's exhibition; his processes seem to us to be the most happily found for bringing this industry to a successful conclusion, from the extraction of wood from the forest to its final, usual transformations in the domestic and agricultural economy and in construction. But this exhibition alone is sufficient to give a complete idea of the degree of perfection to which science, aided by persevering will and relentless labour, has been able to bring this important manufacture.

We are talking about the mechanical sawmill.

All woodworking industries prefer these sawmills, which give the first form to the felled trees, and whose work is at once rapid, private and docile.

When it is necessary to split or divide the tree in a correct and quick way, the contractor has to resort to alternative vertical sawmills, which are used to split small squared timber or boards from log sawmills, fir planks and commercial timber into several cuts. Here the timber is guided and fed continuously by vertical rollers; they follow each other without interruption, one pushing the other, and very long or very short pieces are equally driven. If the supply to be cut is very large, as in the northern ports, where the uniform plank arrives from Sweden and Norway, a special arrangement employing up to sixteen blades at the same time allows two planks to be cut at once, the number of blades always corresponding to the number of strokes to be obtained.

The endless blade sawmill, or band sawmill, is also used for this purpose, and is especially preferred by the carpentry and cabinetmaking industries; however, it requires great skill combined with the utmost care in order to operate it without deviating.

Finally, let us talk about the additional woodworking equipment exhibited by Mr. Arbey in class 59.

The mechanical shaping of wood has required the construction of numerous machine tools, the operation of which, either in the factory or at the Exhibition, may be a nuisance to the visitor's ears, but it charms his eyes and sometimes astounds his imagination.

The most perfect of these machines is undoubtedly the planing machine, with rotating tools and helical blades, of the Mareschal and Godeau system, which can straighten and plane, whiten, and plane all four sides at once or separately.

The one presented by Mr. Arbey, by the shape of the cutting blades and their arrangement in a helix around a cylinder, offers the advantage of making the work constant (2,000 revolutions per minute), of avoiding shocks, of slicing the wood at an angle, either in the direction of the grain or across the grain if it is knotty, of preventing any splintering due to the uniform resistance of the tool, and finally of rejecting the enormous mass of shavings next to the machine, which will no longer obstruct its organs. The application of the propeller to the planing of wood is undoubtedly the most beautiful improvement in this type of construction.


THE PROCESS EQUIPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD INDUSTRIES.

First of all we shall mention a mill for extracting juice from sugar cane.

The mill on display can extract juice from 250,000 kilos of cane per twenty-four hours; it has three cylinders of 800 millimetres in diameter; it is served by a cane conductor or mobile board 30 metres long and by a bagasse conductor 12 metres long. The first can be moved or stopped at will by means of a friction clutch; it mechanically brings the canes under the cylinders which crush them and throw the straw or bagasse on the other conductor, which leads it to the hearths of the generators to be burned.

The driving engine of the mill is 55 to 60 horsepower; it is horizontal, with a change of direction, with a screw and a sliding trigger. The regulator receives its movement directly from a gear wheel fixed to the shaft of the flywheel; the end of the latter carries a crank which moves the pump raising the juice or vesou to defecation or carbonation, after it has passed over a sieve where it leaves the bagasse fibres in suspension. The transmission of movement from the machine to the mill is composed of two pairs of gears; the speed of rotation of the cylinders is only two revolutions per minute. All the shafts are made of mild steel; the joints, trunnions and crank knobs are case-hardened and tempered, so that they can easily withstand all pressures. Finally, everything has been combined, in the forms as well as in the nature of the metals used, to ensure complete stability and easy conservation.

Here is now a triple-effect evaporation apparatus, which can concentrate up to a density of 29 degrees 2,200 hectolitres of juice per twenty-four hours. It consists of three tubular boilers, of different diameters, with a total heating surface of 330 square metres. It combines all the improvements known up to now in the construction of these appliances, and, in addition, it offers a circumferential distribution of the steam by means of a perforated sheet metal envelope interposed between the tubular bundle and the external envelope of each boiler, which ensures a completely uniform distribution of the steam.

By means of a central tube of large diameter, placed in each boiler, great activity is given to the circulation of the juice, and great intensity to the evaporation by the continuous renewal of the contacts. A system of pipes and taps for the communication of juice and steam enables the successive cleaning of the second and third boilers to be carried out without any stoppage.

This represents a saving of almost 60% on single-acting evaporation. A juice aspirator, feeding the first boiler, eliminates the ordinary juice lift; the syrup chute, placed below the third boiler, also replaces it and serves as a suction tank for a pump arranged to raise the syrups to 25° on the filters: A tubular reheating condenser, with safety vessel, brings the cold juices to the temperature of 35° to 40°, condensing part of the vapours from the third boiler; the condensation of the other part is completed by a conical injection condenser; the apparatus is completed by a double-acting air pump system, the service of the condenser by a syrup pump sucking in the syrup emptying, and by a return water pump.

Let's move on to another device, the conveyor ingot moulder, of the Scheibler system, designed to transform sugar wafers from sawn loaves, or produced directly in some way, into ingots. These wafers are placed one after the other at one end of the machine and driven by endless belts running between the saws. The machine saws only one insert at a time, but it works continuously, so that its output is greater than that of machines with a moving carriage, which work intermittently. As it only operates on the thickness of one wafer, the saw only needs a thickness of 6 tenths of a millimetre, which gives very little powder. It can transform 4 to 6,000 kilograms of sugar into ingots in ten hours.

These ingots are transported by the movement of the straps to the end of the machine, which is itself placed near the sugar-breaking machine; the latter is a great success with visitors, in front of whom it operates all day in the central aisle. It is designed to break the sugar ingots into very regular lumps, which are all arranged and ready to be crated after passing under the knife. As can be seen in our engraving, the woman employed there has only to press with her fingers the two ends of the line of lumps; she thus lifts the whole series and places it conveniently in the box. To feed the machine, she fills each case with the ingots that are within reach of her hand; an endless chain constantly brings the tray before her as soon as it is unloaded.

The 60-centimetre wide model, driven by transmission, can break 4,000 kilograms of boxed sugar lumps per day, in ten hours of work, or 6,000 kilograms of unboxed lumps. The output of the second model, 30 centimetres wide and driven by hand, is less than half that.

One of the curiosities of class 52 is the Decauville carrier, the Decauville carrier is nothing other than a new railway, based on the principle of distributing ordinary loads over a large number of axles; when it is a question of fractional loads such as the products of mines, brickworks, farms, etc., the load is divided into fractions, If, on the other hand, the load cannot be split up, such as the cannons of a fort, it is distributed over two swivel-fork wagons, each with three or even four axles. The whole of this new railway was called the Porteur, and its most important feature is that the rails being in one piece with the sleepers and joint bars, the track can instantly be laid anywhere, and raised, transported and reinstalled with the greatest speed.

The track consists of five-metre, two-and-a-half-metre and one-and-a-half-metre spans of specially manufactured four-kilogram rail. This rail is the exact miniature of the big rails of the Companies, and arrives consequently at the greatest resistance that can obtain the worked iron; used in fixed track, it can support normally one thousand kilograms per axle, and this excess of force allows in the portable track to make it carry loads of five hundred kilograms, the track resting on an irregular ground with overhangs of two meters fifty to three meters.

The forty-centimetre track was chosen as the most rigid and at the same time the most portable, because a man of any size can carry a five-metre span, weighing forty-seven kilograms, by placing himself in the middle and taking a rail in each hand.

This track can carry the same loads as the wider tracks and has the advantage over them of allowing sharper curves and less expensive turntables.

Fifty and sixty centimetre tracks are somewhat less easy to carry and should only be adopted when carrying excessively bulky goods or in a service where the track must rarely be dismantled, such as connecting a factory to the station.

Intermediate sizes are also used to supplement existing railway installations.

The rails are riveted to the gauge sleepers at a distance of one and a quarter metres, formed by a flat iron strip; and what distinguishes this track from others of its kind is not only its extreme solidity, but above all its stability, which comes from the fact that it rests on the ground evenly through the rail pad and the gauge sleepers; it cannot sink even though the dampness of the ground does not allow horses to enter the fields.

Each gauge sleeper has two holes through which bolts or lag bolts can be passed to fix boards when crossing shifting ground, or to fix to pieces of wood placed in advance in the ground when the track is to remain permanently fixed. In this way, an extremely solid railway is laid, avoiding the always very delicate operation of sabotaging the wooden sleepers.

Experience has shown that in most cases the track can be laid fixed without the addition of wooden sleepers. It is sufficient to make an excavation five centimetres deep in the place where the track is to be laid; the straight tracks, curves and crossings are then laid at the end of each other and filled with rammed earth, asphalt, or macadam if the track is to be crossed by cars; in the latter case, it is preferable to use the track against rails

The establishment of the track thus included costs only 4.75 francs per metre.

We know how important the consumption of carbonated water has become. It is easy to use for all those who live in cities where these waters are industrially produced. The problem is almost as simple with the elegant device exhibited by Mr. Paquet, I, cité Trévise, the only manufacturer today of the Lhôte Seltzogene, which deserves to be better known. The physiognomy of this device is more or less that of a jug, entirely made of porcelain, without rubber or any metallic alloy that could give the liquid a bad taste. It is undoubtedly the most convenient of all the devices for making seltzer and other carbonated drinks, because it never needs repairing, it does not expose to loss of gas, nor to explosion, nor to the projection of the liquid on the table or clothing. This is why it was awarded the bronze medal, the highest award for this small equipment.

The use is of the utmost simplicity: the jug is divided by an impermeable porcelain partition into two compartments; each of these receives the water and the special powder, the mixing of which is done only in the glass, where the gas is formed when the liquids come together at the exit of each spout. As for us, we do not know of any other device that is as satisfactory, especially since it is the cheapest of all, and that a simple rinsing is sufficient to keep it clean.

At the same time, Mr. Paquet exhibited a graceful pepper mill, also made of porcelain, with a solid and neat mechanism, intended to be placed on tables, and allowing to have constantly, at the right moment, authentic, pure, aromatic and fresh pepper. In two turns of the mill, your dish is sprinkled. It is easy, original, and the instrument can be decorated to be in harmony with all the ordinary service.

We would also like to mention the grain sorters made by Mr. Alfred Clert, a manufacturer and mechanic in Niort.

He also makes sorters for flour mills and breweries.

The main sorter, model n° I, is in two parts with grids and automatic recovery.

The important and indisputable advantage of this machine is that it is divided into two equal parts representing two distinct sorters, working together or separately.

The first part is used to separate wheat from long grains: oats and barley. It can also be used alone to clean and purge barley and oats of any foreign seeds they may contain.

The second part not only separates round seeds, such as hock or chaff, mustard seeds, niello and all seeds foreign to wheat, but also the wheats themselves, according to their size for the seed.

I would like to point out this second part, to which a new improvement or automatic recovery has just been applied.

Up to now, the sorting machines gave, in addition to the merchant wheat and the seed wheat, a quality of wheat mixed with black seeds which had to be rejected on the mass to be sorted or put back into the sorting machines to undergo a new sorting, which caused a great loss of time.

This sorter gives two qualities of wheat: market wheat and seed wheat; we have perfectly pure black seeds of good wheat, i.e. no losses or waste. This result is achieved by the automatic reclaiming system.

The two parts of the sorter are independent and each one is equipped with a regulator, so they can be regulated separately. They can also be operated together or separately.

This ease of separating the two parts, each of which is 1.10 metres long by 70 cents wide and 1 metre high, facilitates transport and allows the machine to be mounted anywhere you wish to operate, as the volume of each part does not exceed that of an ordinary fan.

The output of the apparatus is 2 to 3 hectolitres per day.

Among the distillery appliances, we note those of the Savalle fils company.

The production of alcohol has become one of the most important branches of the agricultural industries. For a long time, one hardly thought of extracting it from sugar fermentation, from wine; but, with consumption taking a formidable extension, powerful means and more numerous elements of manufacture were needed. Various fruits, already known earlier as sources of precious brandies for their aromatic bouquet, entered to a greater extent into the stills of the distillers; beetroot or rather its molasses was also soon brought into the vats; finally, grains, wheat, barley, maize, rice, oats, etc., entered definitively for a preponderant part in the number of materials that our contemporary distillers treat. Millions of tons of grain are currently produced.

Through what series of metamorphoses have the manufacturing processes reached the perfection that is revealed today?

This is what we will briefly describe:
Everyone knows the primitive alembic; it is based on the property that alcohol has of remaining in a state of vapour at a temperature much lower than 100 degrees, the boiling point of pure water. The most advanced equipment, adopted by our largest factories, are still only more or less perfected applications of this principle.

We will not say here how fermentation takes place, nor at the price of what meticulous precautions are taken to obtain musts where the alcohol is contained in dissolution in water. Whatever the substance from which we want to extract alcohol, it must undergo this series of transformations that bring it to the state of a must that contains the alcohol to be extracted.

Most of the apparatus on display derive from the continuous distillation system created at the beginning of the century by Cellier-Blumenthal. The Derosne et Cail company then perfected the latter, of which it became a real speciality.

The distinctive feature of this invention was to make the analysing column vertical. It was thanks to M. Savalle père that Cellier was able to obtain regular operation of his apparatus.

Mr. Champonois, concerned above all with rustic productions, which require robust organs, substituted cast iron for copper in the establishment of the column, and devised a more practical arrangement of the mobile plates.

Today, Mr. Savalle Jr. builds the devices adopted by all factories that have to process considerable quantities. According to these manufacturers, his rectangular distillation apparatus gives incomparably perfect results.

Let us also mention the apparatus for the rectification of alcohols.

This is how it is done:
First, the phlegms are saturated with carbonate of potash, which fixes the acids. The alcohol thus purified is sent to the boiler which forms the base of the rectifying apparatus. The heat is supplied by steam pipes which must bring the liquid to the desired temperature; the capacity of the boiler is about 22,500 litres; it communicates with a cylindrical column containing thirty-two trays, each with an opening of 4 millimetres: each one is hollowed out and forms a basin where the liquid from the upper tray falls.

As soon as the vapours rising from the boiler have acquired a tension greater than the weight of the liquid accumulated on the trays, the latter cannot descend through the openings at the same time as the vapour rises.

The first products given by the condensed alcoholic vapour contain the ethers, and are returned to a special tank; then comes what is called the three-sixths good taste, i.e. alcohol containing 50% water, and having absolutely no odour or taste. The tasting guides the driver, who must, as soon as he feels the slightest alteration in the taste, send the alcohol into the tank known as semi-fine alcohol.

When the temperature of the boiler exceeds 101 degrees and reaches 102, the water and essential oils, beginning to pass through, would alter the products already obtained; the arrival of the steam must therefore be stopped, and the liquid from the trays, no longer encountering obstacles, can pass through the small openings and fall back to the bottom of the column, where, encountering the opening of a siphon, it is led into a special reservoir destined for the products of bad taste.
The alcohol thus obtained carries 96 or 97 degrees.

Out of 100 parts, it contains 96 of alcohol and 4 of pure water. Last year, Mr. Désiré Tavalle, having applied himself to further improve the ingenious apparatus with which, in the Springer factory, he had managed to economically remove the alcohol still contained in the yeast washing water, was able to combine a new apparatus with which alcohol with a high strength of 94 and 95 degrees is directly removed from grains, potatoes and molasses.


VARIOUS MATERIALS AND PROCESSES.

We shall pass quickly over the equipment and processes of various industries, such as chemistry, pharmacy and tanning, which would force us to enter into details that are too long and above all too technical.

All we can say is that, thanks to the unprecedented progress made in chemistry over the last few years, most of the processes have improved at the same time as they have become simpler and more rapid.

As far as stationery, dyeing and printing are concerned, little needs to be said; stationery borrows much wood pulp from Switzerland, Belgium and Sweden.

As lithographic and typographic printing has become more and more demanding today, the manufacturers of its tools and inks have had to follow it in its path of progress.

France has held its own, but in this field it has to fight against formidable adversaries: England and the United States.

Most of the equipment we have is from Paris, Lyon or Rouen.

In the exhibition of equipment and processes for sewing and garment making, we note in particular the Merle sisters' pleating and hiving looms.
This loom consists of an elegant wooden frame on which steel blades are fixed at regular intervals. A second set of hinged mobile blades is held on one side under a presser, and on the other by a spring in a rack. The latter, playing under these, pull down the fabric necessary to pleat the flounces which are placed on the loom next to each other, and even on top of each other, if the fabric is light.

This device has the advantage of :
To make, with the same loom, all kinds of pleats and hives, varying them infinitely. Essential condition for the workshops of confections for ladies;
To pleat indifferently all fabrics, cashmere, alpaca, silk, velvet, crepe and muslin, canvas, etc., etc. ;

To spare all the stitches of the frame, and to remove from the loom the finished pleats, ready to be placed on the suit;

To keep the trimmings fresh, by ironing on the loom with an ordinary iron; this allows them to be treated according to their shade and quality, and also to be ironed on a damp cloth, if the fabric requires it to be indeplissable;

To obtain in half an hour the trimmings of a suit;

And finally to operate the loom without an apprenticeship and to be able to entrust the care of it to a person who has never pleated.

We will not dwell on this chapter, but only point out that in all parts of clothing, garments, gloves, hats, shoes, the influence of the sewing machine extends in an incredible way.

Where the sewing machine is powerless, another machine is quickly invented.

M. Dubois, from Cusset, has even invented a device to take measurements.

Here we are in the furniture and housing section. The use of earth, the modifications made to it, is certainly worth a look.

Class 59 contains a very complete exhibition of machines for these industries. Some prepare, divide, corrode and knead the earth; others manufacture and shape the earth thus prepared, giving it the form it must keep in order to be fired.

This is a far cry from the ancient and rudimentary manufacture of bricks, which were first used to build human dwellings. Handwork, for so long the only practice, has been replaced almost everywhere by machine work. In some provinces, which are not very industrious, it is barely possible to make tiles by hand.

For mechanical manufacture, the clay to be used preferably is that which comes out of the quarry, if it has enough consistency so that, kneaded in the hand, it retains the print of the fingers without sticking to it. When the season is very dry, it is slightly moistened before being put through the mixing cylinders; if, on the contrary, it is very rainy, it is hardened by mixing in a few scraps of dry, unfired tiles and bricks, or even dried earth. The cylinders are so powerful that the earth that comes off the grooves is heated and softened: it gives off watery vapours, as if it had been sprinkled with hot water.

The whole manufacturing process depends on the good preparation of the clay, which is never over-mixed; this is why the use of cylinders has allowed some manufacturers to re-exploit abandoned quarries, where the clay used by ordinary processes, i.e. in the state of a soft paste, only gave products that were too defective.

The earth thus mixed is put into the stretching machine and stretched into the shape of a board, or into bricks, or finally into pipes. The cakes become very solid, because the earth is under extreme pressure, and one of these boards can be held by one end without breaking. When cut, it is found to be as tight and as hard as very fine marble.

The advantage of the machines, besides the very superior quantity and quality of their production, is still most appreciable in the saving of time which their use brings about; the tiles and bricks thus manufactured do not become deformed in the dryer, and can be put in the oven two or three days at most after their manufacture. This means that much less space and buildings are needed to dry them.

One of the exhibitions of this family which particularly struck us by the simplicity of the apparatus and the perfection of the products is that of the Boulet house.


THE TELEGRAPHS.

Telegraphy is one of the great modern discoveries, one of those discoveries destined, even more than the railways, to lead the world by express way to its new destinies.

Mr. Laisant, in the Rappel, has written the history of telegraphy as follows:
On September 1, 1794, at the opening of the session, Carnot went up to the rostrum of the Convention, holding in his hand a sheet of paper on which two lines were written.

"I am not going to describe what happened," he said, "but I am going to tell you what happened, and I am going to tell you what happened, and I am going to tell you what happened.

"I will not describe the enthusiasm which these words aroused in the great Assembly, as in the galleries: there are things which one guesses, which one perceives and which nevertheless one could not express.

"This is how the telegraph was inaugurated in France; it is easy to understand how popular the invention of the Chappe brothers must have become under such conditions. Soon new telegraphic lines were created, the telegraph became commonplace, not for private correspondence, but for the exchange of important official dispatches, and a telegraphic network extended and developed over the French territory (I could say over the whole of Europe) until the day when the wonders of electricity resulted in the scrapping of almost all this equipment which had so rightly won the admiration of our fathers.

"It is not that in 1794 the idea of corresponding at a distance by signals was new. It is a process that must have originated at the same time as the written or spoken language. Without going back to heroic times, to Theseus or to the capture of Troy, it is certain that the Greeks made use of signals, and especially fire signals, in their military operations. It is no less certain that they conceived and executed the plan of a veritable telegraphic alphabet, which was rather painful, it must be admitted, in its application.

"In the Middle Ages, I need not say, night reigned over telegraphy, as well as over all other sciences. But from the seventeenth century onwards, many physicists set about this problem, which was so attractive and so difficult before the discovery of optical instruments.

"This in no way diminished the merit of Claude Chappe and his brothers, who had the glory of establishing a practical, simple and rapid apparatus as far as it could be at the time, and of devising an extremely ingenious alphabet, not without having gone through a lot of trial and error and many disappointments.

This is always the case in the history of progress. There is no such thing as an inventor in the absolute sense of the word; each one lives off the common heritage bequeathed to him by his predecessors; he makes more or less use of it, that is all; and he arrives at the simplest solution only after the most painful efforts. Newton, without Kepler, does not exist; which does not prevent Newton from being an incomparable genius.

"The reader may wonder what connection there can be between the Champ de Mars Exhibition and the invention of Claude Chappe. If I stop at these first steps of aerial telegraphy, it is for several reasons. The first is that the telegraph of the Chappe brothers is a very French invention, completely national; moreover, the value of a science can only be truly appreciated by measuring the distance it has travelled since its origin; thirdly, it should not be believed that aerial telegraphy has been dethroned by electricity, to the point of being "always" outlawed. There are many exceptional cases in which the aerial telegraph alone can still be used; and even today the beautiful semaphore network that covers our coasts is equipped with Chappe apparatus, precious instruments for correspondence with ships in sight. Everyone knows what services this network renders every day to maritime navigation.

"It is interesting to note here a very curious fact from the point of view of the history of science, and which is perhaps not sufficiently known, although several popular works have spoken of it; it is that Claude Chappe passed by the electric telegraph, thus sensing, without being able to implement it, the idea which was later to overthrow all his machines and upset the art of telegraphy. The proof is to be found in a famous report by Lakanal, to which the establishment of the telegraph in France is due. Here is how the illustrious conventionalist speaks of Claude Chappe:
"The first thing that caught the attention of this industrious physicist was electricity; he imagined corresponding by the help of times electrically marking the same values, by means of two harmonised pendulums.

"He placed and isolated conductors at certain distances; but the difficulty of isolation, the lateral expansion of the fluid "in a long space, the intensity which would have been necessary and which is subordinate to the state of the atmosphere, made him regard his project of communication by electricity "as chimerical.

"Lakanal was right; at the time he was writing, Chappe's electric telegraph project was chimerical, static electricity alone being known; before the utopia could become a reality, Volta, Galvani, Œrsted and Ampère would have had to pass through it.

"Since 1844, in the United States, since 1855, in France, the electric telegraph has definitively supplanted its predecessor. Progress in this art has been so rapid that, in our country alone, we have seen the most different systems of apparatus succeed one another within a few years of each other. The two-needle Breguet telegraph, whose signals exactly represented those of the Chappe alphabet, after having worked on our lines in the early days, had to give way to the Morse system, that marvel of simplicity with which everyone is now familiar, in which the manipulation is done by a small oscillating lever, and whose alphabet consists entirely of points and lines skilfully combined.

"But soon it became more difficult, and, for important lines, Morse was no longer sufficient; and it was replaced by the apparatus of another American, Hughes, which printed a dispatch in ordinary type with astonishing rapidity. It is only a few years ago that the Hughes has been improved, and this improvement is still increasing every day, and allows us to obtain results which confound the mind.

"The railways, however, had taken the simple dial telegraph from the beginning, and have kept to it to the exclusion of all other systems. There are also dial telegraphs in a number of small stations, although the administration is endeavouring to do away with them and substitute Morse.

"So that there is today in France a very great variety of devices in use, and which undergo incessant modifications.

"Again, we have not said a word about all the applications, infinitely numerous, of short-distance telegraphy, bells, alarms, etc., etc., in which the ingenious minds of manufacturers have endeavoured to do better. There is not even a child's toy in which telegraphy does not find its place.

"Add to this the special apparatus for transatlantic transmissions, the relatively recent processes of pneumatic telegraphy in use in Paris, which sends, not signals, but the dispatches themselves circulating in tubes; and you will have an idea, still incomplete, of the extreme variety presented by an exhibition of this kind.

"What has been imagined, in terms of mechanical combinations, on the occasion of telegraphs, is extraordinary, both from the point of view of conception and of execution. Are all these magnificent devices destined to perish, killed by the very last one called the telephone? For the moment they do not seem to fear so unfortunate a fate, and they are pleased to put on a noble countenance.

"Let them beware, however: progress is inexorable in its march; no more than time, it does not respect acquired rights. The Chappe telegraph, no doubt proud of its patriotic origin, was also boldly launching its arms towards the heavens not thirty years ago; we admired it like a mysterious giant, not without a certain dreamy amazement. And yet today we can hardly find the ruins of the tower that served as his pedestal.

"In order to communicate human thought, there is no longer any need for a powerful telescope, which allows us to notice movements that are carried out a few kilometres away, if the fog does not get in the way. But a gentleman sitting in a very dark room, in Brest, watches a small luminous image moving around on a screen; and this small luminous line lets him know what another gentleman sitting in New York in a room no less dark is saying at the same moment.
Can you imagine this witchcraft practised in the Middle Ages? The treatment inflicted on the audacious, guilty of such a trick, would not have been long in coming.
"Well, from there to the instantaneous transmission of the human voice, under normal and practical conditions, it is not so far perhaps. It is not feasible today'; it may well be done tomorrow.

In the meantime, let us note our riches; they are great and would be worth a detailed inventory.


THE SMALL TOOLS OF THE PARIS ARTICLE.

According to the official catalogue, the small tools of the Paris article relate to 17 different types, which are
1° Tools and processes for the manufacture of objects of clock-making, jewellery, goldsmithery; tools of the engravers, tools of precision.
2° Machines for the manufacture of buttons, eyelets, staples.
3° Machines for making brushes, combs, cards.
4° Machines and tools for capping and uncapping, capping, rinsing and testing bottles and flasks, for filling and handling barrels, for marking corks.
5° Machines for making pins, needles, Paris points, horse shoeing nails.
6° Machines for the manufacture of caps, cartridges, primers and lighters.
7° Bookbinding machines.
8° Machines for office supplies.
9° Machinery for letter envelopes, paper cones and bags, paper collars and cuffs.
10° Machinery for making pens and pencils.
11. Typewriters.
12° Machines for wrapping, tying and sealing goods.
13° Machines for shining, removing shoes, washing and polishing parquet floors.
14° Tools and processes for bimbelotry and marquetry.
15° Tools and processes for the manufacture of wickerwork, straw rings and bottle covers.
16° Money presses, stamping presses, balancers, sheep and punching machines.
17° Sharpening wheels, burnishing stones, etc. We will not go back over these various processes, which we explained to the reader during our visit through the manual work gallery.

We will, however, give details of a very interesting little production process, that of the pin.

This graceful and cute object, which costs so little, is only finished, completed, after having passed through the hands of more than twenty-five workers.

Pins are made from brass; the brass is sent to us by certain factories in the North which have made its manufacture their speciality.

So here is the brass that has arrived in the pin factory. It will be used to produce the heads and the pins. I will try to describe to you the various phases it will go through before becoming this charming object that the woman's fingers handle with as much grace as skill.

The brass arrives rough and coiled. It must therefore be straightened. This operation is carried out by a special worker who is both a straightener and a cutter. He can straighten up to six hundred toises of brass per day, and also supply two hundred and forty THOUSAND SPINGLES per day.

From the hands of the cutter, the rods pass to those of the sharpener, who sharpens them by means of a steel wheel placed in the middle of an apparatus more or less similar to that used by the remover.

The pin now has a point, but no head. In this state, it is called a hause.

The brass used to make the pins is also used to make the heads; the brass is tightly rolled by means of a steam-driven machine; when the wire has been wound enough times to form a sufficient head, the worker cuts the wire with a shear. Once the heads are made, they are thrown into a sieve and easily applied to the rods; the sharpened end of the rod is simply pushed through. The head then slides to the top of the pin where it is easily attached.
Pinheads are produced at a rate of 1200 per hour.

The pin is made. It is cleaned, the brass is polished, and then it is handed over to the blaster.

The bouteuse is the worker who is responsible for stitching the pins onto the strips of paper we all know.

The holes in which the pins are placed are drilled in advance, by means of a steel comb.

The blaster is also responsible for this.

The blaster performs a considerable task. In one day, she can drill 120 million holes and place 15 thousand pins in them.


BODYWORK, CARPENTRY, ETC.

We are now entering a class which has a special attraction, that of bodywork.

It was a charming sight.

All these luxurious cars, gleaming like brides, sparkling with copper and silver, presented a very original, even somewhat solemn, appearance.

All kinds of carriages were present, from the princely carriage to the omnibus and the tramway.

Here is the duke, furnished as a sphinx, which the elegant man drives to the woods.

Here is the Dorsay with eight springs, Mr. Bail had some remarkable ones.

Here is a hunting carriage that can harness two, three, four, even six horses at will.

Mr. Detouches has remarkable mail-coaches, prams and phaetons, then coupés and victorias of the best taste.

The coupés, - particularly the coupé Zéphir, __clad in green-azure silk plush and upholstered from top to bottom, are of a delightful grace and lightness.

We find the same models at M. Keller's.

We will particularly note his eight-spring victoria.

The cars of Mr. Binder and the Belvalette brothers were no less remarkable.

The Compagnie générale des omnibus de Paris, and the Compagnie générale des voitures de Paris sent various models of cars.

The rest of the class was occupied by the various suppliers of objects indispensable to the bodywork.

Before concluding, let us say that the bodywork industry, which does an average of one hundred million francs of business per year, supplies eleven trades:
The manufacturers of springs and axles, the wheel manufacturers, the manufacturers of front ends and all parts suitable for assembly, the special hardware manufacturers, the carpenters, the manufacturers of bent wood, the lantern makers, the plasterers, the cabinet makers, the sculptors, and the passementiers.

This does not include suppliers of wood, cloth, velvet, etc.

The saddlery and harness trade includes bodywork accessories, i.e. harnesses, bits, saddles, etc., and whips, sticks, whips and the like.


NAVIGATION AND RESCUE.

Navigation and rescue, although combined in one exhibition, form two perfectly distinct ones.

Let us begin with navigation. It comprises three parts: 1° the navy in general, 2° the State navy; 3° pleasure boating, which, as we know, has taken on a certain importance in recent years and has finally gained a classified place.

There are 9,193 small fishing vessels and 397 large fishing vessels; there are nearly 1,139 ocean-going vessels, and the number of similar steamships is almost insignificant.

There are currently 41 sailing and 41 steam yachts.

At first sight, the visitor felt lost in the midst of all these ropes, all these devices, all these masts, all these diving suits, all this multitude of various devices with which the general public is not very familiar.

The great attraction of this exhibition was certainly the lifeboats or other life-size boats, and the models exhibited by the Ministry of the Navy.

The Ministry of the Navy has, it can be said, well deserved the exhibition by the intelligent and complete way in which it has chosen the objects to be exhibited.

The models of the ships: the Devastation, the Redoutable, the Richelieu, the Trident, the Suffren, the Duguesclin, the Victorieuse, the Tonnerre, the Tempête, the Duquesne, the Duguay-Trouin, the Éclaireur, the Lapérouze, the Villers, the Chasseur, the Crocodile, the Anamite, the Allier, were striking because of their formidable dimensions and their numerous artillery.

All around, the public found models representing halves of ships, which allowed them to realize their conformation; one saw the machines in all details: finally, this exhibition was a true school, because it was impossible to leave without having understood, so much it had been carefully organized and so much the thousand and one details of the naval construction inevitably burst with the eyes.

All types of marine equipment were on display in this gallery.

Among the small craft exhibited, one of the most interesting was the lifeboat; it had been placed on a sort of platform, with stairs on each side, and the public did not fail to climb up and down twenty times to admire the nutshell in which brave people go, through the dark night, in spite of the furious waves of the sea, to rescue ships in danger.

This leads us to talk about rescue and the Central Society for the Rescue of Shipwrecked Persons, which was founded in 1865, since it was this society that exhibited the boat we have just mentioned.

Its exhibition is completed by a series of life belts and finally by ordinary rescue equipment.

The most curious object and the one that was the most examined was the gun, which has already rendered such undeniable services.

Apart from the Rescue Society, we shall mention at random Y electric alarm y for announcing the dangers of fire and which consists of a bell set up at the concierge's lodge and corresponding to the various floors of the house; at the first symptom of danger, the bell warns the concierge and indicates the place of danger,
* Here is another life-saving device, the spare rudder invented by Mr. L. Le Guénédal, attached to the port of Bordeaux.

The spare rudder should render immense services; thanks to it, no more disabled ships and how many shipwrecks have been avoided!

M. Le Guénédal's invention was very much noticed and special men considered it as practical.

The name of Mr. J.-B. Toselli is already well known to the public, as that of a tireless worker who is relentlessly pursuing the solution of the difficult problem of extracting from the bottom of the sea the riches it contains.

At the Champ de Mars we find his marine mole and his self-propelled grapples. The view of our engravings will easily explain to the reader the use for which these devices are intended. It will suffice to add here that the branches or claws of the grapples open under the pressure of the water at the moment of descent, and close again of their own accord as soon as they touch the object they are going to grab.

As for the mole, which is shown on the right in our first drawing, it allows the underwater explorer to descend and ascend, to advance in all directions, and finally to move at will; it gives him the means of illuminating the field of his research, and of taking with him the objects he encounters on his way.
We cannot go into the details of construction and operation here; those who are curious about it can contact Mr. Toselli, 196, rue de Lafayette, and ask him for his small explanatory brochures, which are of extreme interest.

We will only say that the machines of this intelligent manufacturer have been tested many times with complete success, in Marseilles, in Corsica, on the Italian coast, and that each time Ton has noted the great benefit that could be expected.

Here are some very curious devices which have proved their worth, we want to talk about the exhibition of Mr. Bazin, the well-known engineer.

Let us speak first of the system invented by him, for the extraction of sand and mud.

Charged with a job in a harbour in the ocean and having recognised the need to remove a thickness of 4 metres of silt at an average depth of 22 metres, he was faced with the impotence of ordinary dredgers, which do not go to such depths, and which exposed him to frequent interruptions of the work, as a result of the tide and the movement of the waves. His inventive genius soon found a new instrument.

He thought that if he made an opening in the bottom of a ship, the water would invade the hold; but if he adapted a pipe to this opening, the end of which would rest on the silt to be extracted, it would no longer be the molecule of water placed near the opening of the ship that would enter, but the molecule of water placed on the silt near the opening of the pipe, and this in its upward movement would drag the silt away.

As soon as the idea was conceived, the test was tried and it succeeded. This process was then used successfully to clear the harbour. A rubber hose with a diameter of 10 centimetres, placed on the silt to be removed, gradually brought it to the bottom of the ship; there an elevating machine gradually expelled it outside. And in this way millions of cubic metres were removed from a depth of 22 metres.

This invention, based on a physical law that everyone knows, seems very simple, and indeed it is; but it is like all simple things, it had to be found.

Another of Mr. Bazin's inventions, which is much appreciated and which is working at the moment in the placers of Guinea, Senegal, Paraguay, Uruguay, Honduras, Peru, Saint-Dominique, Malaysia and the Guianas, is the hydraulic-centrifugal scrubber.

This washer is the natural complement to the extractor.

To the primitive process of the sebile or butte, M. Bazin has substituted a device of admirable simplicity, easily transportable, a sort of mechanical beater, whose useful operation no longer depends solely on the skill or negligence of the worker, and which alone, handled by one man, without any driving force, does the work of a team of twenty beaters. Ten of these machines, so simple, so light, so inexpensive, therefore represent a site of two hundred washers. The gold washing industry is now equipped with perfect and definitive instruments.

Next to them we find two types of fast boats which are extremely curious.

Both are narrow, extremely elongated, and obviously designed to offer the least possible resistance to the passage of water, under the action of the propeller which pushes them. To keep them stable, Mr. Baziut has devised two new and highly original combinations. One, applied to vessels intended for short voyages, consists of two outriggers, fixed on each side of the edge, which act as extended fins, to keep the vessel in balance.


Another invention, with which we shall conclude, is described below:
Six large segments of sphere coupled like the wheels of a locomotive through the carcass of the vessel, and placed in the middle of its length, replace the outriggers which we have just indicated, in vessels destined for long crossings; actuated by the force of steam, these six spherical caps, cut to sharp edges, and whose sectional surface, looking at the vessel, is rigorously vertical to the plane of the sea, roll with great speed and cut the water. Their function is not, as one is tempted to believe, to transmit the force of the impulse to the ship; they simply have to split the water in order to reduce the resistance offered by the volume of the ship. This is why these two types of express liner have been given the name of outrigger ship and roll-on roll-off ship.

Let's continue our walk. Here is a whole collection of diving suits, the Parisian population observes them with great curiosity, it reminds them of a drama at the bottom of the sea.

Finally, here is the spiral descender, which seemed to us to be of great use and to meet all the desirable practical conditions.

The device consists simply of a non-combustible rope. When the danger arrives, you attach the end to your balcony or window sill.

The rope passes through a sort of solid metal sleeve, winding two, three or four turns through a sort of spiral groove fixed in the sleeve.

You attach yourself to the sleeve by the belt and let yourself slide down.

A pull on the rope below the sleeve is enough to stop it instantly; you are then free to moderate or accelerate the descent as you wish.

There were other systems of descenders at the exhibition, but this one seemed to us the best, the simplest and the most practical, as we said at the beginning.
It offers, moreover, the incontestable advantage of being able to be installed in a second, the time to tie a rope. Speed is the first condition of rescue.
Let's get back to navigation.

The Forges et chantiers de la Méditerranée, the Compagnie Transatlantique, the Dunkerque dry dock, the Ardoisières d'Angers, the Usines et chantiers de construction de la Seine have exhibited a large quantity of materials used in shipbuilding.

Among the curiosities, let us mention the remarkable work of Mr. Captain of the Marine Infantry Filaz, executed with incredible accuracy.

Pleasure boating was brilliantly represented thanks to the patronage of the Yacht-Club de France, a society for the encouragement of pleasure boating, whose president is Admiral de La Roncière le Noury.

All the societies that it subsidises had displayed their guidons, their pavilions and their trophies.

We know that the Yacht Club has a special pavilion which has been granted to it by the Minister of the Navy.

We will not dwell on this exhibition or on the ships moored on the bank.

We have already told the reader in detail about the Frigorifique, which was so interesting to visit.

It seems to us that we owe at least one mention, and this is certainly its place here, to a very small boat, the Nautilus, which did not find a home at the Exhibition, and which had to be housed in a shop on Avenue Rapp.

If ever a small boat deserved the name of nutshell, it is the Nautilus. For a little, one would squeeze it into one's toilet.

Well, this walnut shell, which left from the American coast, made the Atlantic crossing to Le Havre in less than fifty days, in a sea that was always heavy.

Obviously, this proves nothing; obviously, the two brothers William and Waller Andrews, in accomplishing this act, - which could be described as madness, - did not make the slightest step forward in navigation; undoubtedly, they achieved nothing useful for humanity or for themselves.

But what courage!

And by what grace of heaven did the terrible Atlantic, which sometimes makes short work of the big ships, spare this Nautilus kid who was taunting it so brazenly?

©Les Merveilles de l'Exposition de 1878